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Molecular and Cellular Biology (1)
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Krainer, Adrian R. (2)
Cazalla, Demian (1)
Cáceres, Javier F. (1)
Ding, Jianzhong (1)
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Nuclear Export and Retention Signals in the RS Domain of SR Proteins
Cáceres, Javier F.
Molecular and Cellular Biology
Splicing factors of the SR protein family share a modular structure consisting of one or two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and a C-terminal RS domain rich in arginine and serine residues. The RS domain, which is extensively phosphorylated, promotes protein-protein interactions and directs subcellular localization and—in certain situations—nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of individual SR proteins. We analyzed mutant versions of human SF2/ASF in which the natural RS repeats were replaced by RD or RE repeats and compared the splicing and subcellular localization properties of these proteins to those of SF2/ASF lacking the entire RS domain or possessing a minimal RS domain consisting of 10 consecutive RS dipeptides (RS10). In vitro splicing of a pre-mRNA that requires an RS domain could take place when the mutant RD, RE, or RS10 domain replaced the natural domain. The RS10 version of SF2/ASF shuttled between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in the same manner as the wild-type protein, suggesting that a tract of consecutive RS dipeptides, in conjunction with the RRMs of SF2/ASF, is necessary and sufficient to direct nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. However, the SR protein SC35 has two long stretches of RS repeats, yet it is not a shuttling protein. We demonstrate the presence of a dominant nuclear retention signal in the RS domain of SC35.
Correlated alternative side chain conformations in the RNA-recognition motif of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1
Nucleic Acids Research
The RNA-recognition motif (RRM) is a common and evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding module. Crystallographic and solution structural studies have shown that RRMs adopt a compact α/β structure, in which four antiparallel β-strands form the major RNA-binding surface. Conserved aromatic residues in the RRM are located on the surface of the β-sheet and are important for RNA binding. To further our understanding of the structural basis of RRM-nucleic acid interaction, we carried out a high resolution analysis of UP1, the N-terminal, two-RRM domain of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1), whose structure was previously solved at 1.75–1.9 Å resolution. The two RRMs of hnRNP A1 are closely related but have distinct functions in regulating alternative pre-mRNA splice site selection. Our present 1.1 Å resolution crystal structure reveals that two conserved solvent-exposed phenylalanines in the first RRM have alternative side chain conformations. These conformations are spatially correlated, as the individual amino acids cannot adopt each of the observed conformations independently. These phenylalanines are critical for nucleic acid binding and the observed alternative side chain conformations may serve as a mechanism for regulating nucleic acid binding by RRM-containing proteins.
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