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1.  CRISPR Inversion of CTCF Sites Alters Genome Topology and Enhancer/Promoter Function 
Cell  2015;162(4):900-910.
CTCF/cohesin play a central role in insulator function and higher-order chromatin organization of mammalian genomes. Recent studies identified a correlation between the orientation of CTCF-binding sites (CBSs) and chromatin loops. To test the functional significance of this observation, we combined CRISPR/Cas9-based genomic-DNA-fragment editing with chromosome-conformation-capture experiments to show that the location and relative orientations of CBSs determine the specificity of long-range chromatin looping in mammalian genomes, using protocadherin (Pcdh) and β-globin as model genes. Inversion of CBS elements within the Pcdh enhancer reconfigures the topology of chromatin loops between the distal enhancer and target promoters, and alters gene-expression patterns. Thus, although enhancers can function in an orientation-independent manner in reporter assays, in the native chromosome context the orientation of at least some enhancers carrying CBSs can determine both the architecture of topological chromatin domains and enhancer/promoter specificity. The findings reveal how 3D chromosome architecture can be encoded by genome sequence.
PMCID: PMC4642453  PMID: 26276636
2.  Differential connectivity of splicing activators and repressors to the human spliceosome 
Genome Biology  2015;16(1):119.
During spliceosome assembly, protein-protein interactions (PPI) are sequentially formed and disrupted to accommodate the spatial requirements of pre-mRNA substrate recognition and catalysis. Splicing activators and repressors, such as SR proteins and hnRNPs, modulate spliceosome assembly and regulate alternative splicing. However, it remains unclear how they differentially interact with the core spliceosome to perform their functions.
Here, we investigate the protein connectivity of SR and hnRNP proteins to the core spliceosome using probabilistic network reconstruction based on the integration of interactome and gene expression data. We validate our model by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry of the prototypical splicing factors SRSF1 and hnRNPA1. Network analysis reveals that a factor’s properties as an activator or repressor can be predicted from its overall connectivity to the rest of the spliceosome. In addition, we discover and experimentally validate PPIs between the oncoprotein SRSF1 and members of the anti-tumor drug target SF3 complex. Our findings suggest that activators promote the formation of PPIs between spliceosomal sub-complexes, whereas repressors mostly operate through protein-RNA interactions.
This study demonstrates that combining in-silico modeling with biochemistry can significantly advance the understanding of structure and function relationships in the human spliceosome.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13059-015-0682-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4502471  PMID: 26047612
3.  OLego: fast and sensitive mapping of spliced mRNA-Seq reads using small seeds 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;41(10):5149-5163.
A crucial step in analyzing mRNA-Seq data is to accurately and efficiently map hundreds of millions of reads to the reference genome and exon junctions. Here we present OLego, an algorithm specifically designed for de novo mapping of spliced mRNA-Seq reads. OLego adopts a multiple-seed-and-extend scheme, and does not rely on a separate external aligner. It achieves high sensitivity of junction detection by strategic searches with small seeds (∼14 nt for mammalian genomes). To improve accuracy and resolve ambiguous mapping at junctions, OLego uses a built-in statistical model to score exon junctions by splice-site strength and intron size. Burrows–Wheeler transform is used in multiple steps of the algorithm to efficiently map seeds, locate junctions and identify small exons. OLego is implemented in C++ with fully multithreaded execution, and allows fast processing of large-scale data. We systematically evaluated the performance of OLego in comparison with published tools using both simulated and real data. OLego demonstrated better sensitivity, higher or comparable accuracy and substantially improved speed. OLego also identified hundreds of novel micro-exons (<30 nt) in the mouse transcriptome, many of which are phylogenetically conserved and can be validated experimentally in vivo. OLego is freely available at
PMCID: PMC3664805  PMID: 23571760
4.  SpliceTrap: a method to quantify alternative splicing under single cellular conditions 
Bioinformatics  2011;27(21):3010-3016.
Motivation: Alternative splicing (AS) is a pre-mRNA maturation process leading to the expression of multiple mRNA variants from the same primary transcript. More than 90% of human genes are expressed via AS. Therefore, quantifying the inclusion level of every exon is crucial for generating accurate transcriptomic maps and studying the regulation of AS.
Results: Here we introduce SpliceTrap, a method to quantify exon inclusion levels using paired-end RNA-seq data. Unlike other tools, which focus on full-length transcript isoforms, SpliceTrap approaches the expression-level estimation of each exon as an independent Bayesian inference problem. In addition, SpliceTrap can identify major classes of alternative splicing events under a single cellular condition, without requiring a background set of reads to estimate relative splicing changes. We tested SpliceTrap both by simulation and real data analysis, and compared it to state-of-the-art tools for transcript quantification. SpliceTrap demonstrated improved accuracy, robustness and reliability in quantifying exon-inclusion ratios.
Conclusions: SpliceTrap is a useful tool to study alternative splicing regulation, especially for accurate quantification of local exon-inclusion ratios from RNA-seq data.
Availability and Implementation: SpliceTrap can be implemented online through the CSH Galaxy server and is also available for download and installation at
Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
PMCID: PMC3198574  PMID: 21896509
5.  Identification of Synaptic Targets of Drosophila Pumilio 
PLoS Computational Biology  2008;4(2):e1000026.
Drosophila Pumilio (Pum) protein is a translational regulator involved in embryonic patterning and germline development. Recent findings demonstrate that Pum also plays an important role in the nervous system, both at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and in long-term memory formation. In neurons, Pum appears to play a role in homeostatic control of excitability via down regulation of para, a voltage gated sodium channel, and may more generally modulate local protein synthesis in neurons via translational repression of eIF-4E. Aside from these, the biologically relevant targets of Pum in the nervous system remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that Pum might play a role in regulating the local translation underlying synapse-specific modifications during memory formation. To identify relevant translational targets, we used an informatics approach to predict Pum targets among mRNAs whose products have synaptic localization. We then used both in vitro binding and two in vivo assays to functionally confirm the fidelity of this informatics screening method. We find that Pum strongly and specifically binds to RNA sequences in the 3′UTR of four of the predicted target genes, demonstrating the validity of our method. We then demonstrate that one of these predicted target sequences, in the 3′UTR of discs large (dlg1), the Drosophila PSD95 ortholog, can functionally substitute for a canonical NRE (Nanos response element) in vivo in a heterologous functional assay. Finally, we show that the endogenous dlg1 mRNA can be regulated by Pumilio in a neuronal context, the adult mushroom bodies (MB), which is an anatomical site of memory storage.
Author Summary
The Drosophila Pumilio (Pum) protein was originally identified as a translational control factor for embryo patterning. Subsequent studies have identified Pum's role in multiple biological processes, including the maintenance of germline stem cell, the proliferation and migration of primordial germ cells, olfactory leaning and memory, and synaptic plasticity. Pum is highly conserved across phyla, i.e., from worm to human; however, the mRNA targets of Pum within each tissue and organism are largely unknown. On the other hand, the prediction of RNA binding sites remains a hard question in the computational field. We were interested in finding Pum targets in the nervous system using fruit flies as a model organism. To accomplish this, we used the few Pum binding sequences that had previously been shown in vivo as “training sequences” to construct bioinformatic models of the Pum binding site. We then predicted a few Pum mRNA targets among the genes known to function in neuronal synapses. We then used a combination of “golden standards” to verify these predictions: a biochemical assay called gel shifts, and in vivo functional assays both in embryo and neurons. With these approaches, we successfully confirmed one of the targets as Dlg, which is the Drosophila ortholog of human PSD95. Therefore, we present a complete story from computational study to real biological functions.
PMCID: PMC2265480  PMID: 18463699
6.  Distribution of SR protein exonic splicing enhancer motifs in human protein-coding genes 
Nucleic Acids Research  2005;33(16):5053-5062.
Exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) are pre-mRNA cis-acting elements required for splice-site recognition. We previously developed a web-based program called ESEfinder that scores any sequence for the presence of ESE motifs recognized by the human SR proteins SF2/ASF, SRp40, SRp55 and SC35 (). Using ESEfinder, we have undertaken a large-scale analysis of ESE motif distribution in human protein-coding genes. Significantly higher frequencies of ESE motifs were observed in constitutive internal protein-coding exons, compared with both their flanking intronic regions and with pseudo exons. Statistical analysis of ESE motif frequency distributions revealed a complex relationship between splice-site strength and increased or decreased frequencies of particular SR protein motifs. Comparison of constitutively and alternatively spliced exons demonstrated slightly weaker splice-site scores, as well as significantly fewer ESE motifs, in the alternatively spliced group. Our results underline the importance of ESE-mediated SR protein function in the process of exon definition, in the context of both constitutive splicing and regulated alternative splicing.
PMCID: PMC1201331  PMID: 16147989
7.  ESEfinder: a web resource to identify exonic splicing enhancers 
Nucleic Acids Research  2003;31(13):3568-3571.
Point mutations frequently cause genetic diseases by disrupting the correct pattern of pre-mRNA splicing. The effect of a point mutation within a coding sequence is traditionally attributed to the deduced change in the corresponding amino acid. However, some point mutations can have much more severe effects on the structure of the encoded protein, for example when they inactivate an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE), thereby resulting in exon skipping. ESEs also appear to be especially important in exons that normally undergo alternative splicing. Different classes of ESE consensus motifs have been described, but they are not always easily identified. ESEfinder ( is a web-based resource that facilitates rapid analysis of exon sequences to identify putative ESEs responsive to the human SR proteins SF2/ASF, SC35, SRp40 and SRp55, and to predict whether exonic mutations disrupt such elements.
PMCID: PMC169022  PMID: 12824367
8.  Exonic Splicing Enhancer Motif Recognized by Human SC35 under Splicing Conditions 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2000;20(3):1063-1071.
Exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) are important cis elements required for exon inclusion. Using an in vitro functional selection and amplification procedure, we have identified a novel ESE motif recognized by the human SR protein SC35 under splicing conditions. The selected sequences are functional and specific: they promote splicing in nuclear extract or in S100 extract complemented by SC35 but not by SF2/ASF. They can also function in a different exonic context from the one used for the selection procedure. The selected sequences share one or two close matches to a short and highly degenerate octamer consensus, GRYYcSYR. A score matrix was generated from the selected sequences according to the nucleotide frequency at each position of their best match to the consensus motif. The SC35 score matrix, along with our previously reported SF2/ASF score matrix, was used to search the sequences of two well-characterized splicing substrates derived from the mouse immunoglobulin M (IgM) and human immunodeficiency virus tat genes. Multiple SC35 high-score motifs, but only two widely separated SF2/ASF motifs, were found in the IgM C4 exon, which can be spliced in S100 extract complemented by SC35. In contrast, multiple high-score motifs for both SF2/ASF and SC35 were found in a variant of the Tat T3 exon (lacking an SC35-specific silencer) whose splicing can be complemented by either SF2/ASF or SC35. The motif score matrix can help locate SC35-specific enhancers in natural exon sequences.
PMCID: PMC85223  PMID: 10629063

Results 1-8 (8)