Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-5 (5)

Clipboard (0)
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Nuclear Export and Retention Signals in the RS Domain of SR Proteins 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2002;22(19):6871-6882.
Splicing factors of the SR protein family share a modular structure consisting of one or two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and a C-terminal RS domain rich in arginine and serine residues. The RS domain, which is extensively phosphorylated, promotes protein-protein interactions and directs subcellular localization and—in certain situations—nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of individual SR proteins. We analyzed mutant versions of human SF2/ASF in which the natural RS repeats were replaced by RD or RE repeats and compared the splicing and subcellular localization properties of these proteins to those of SF2/ASF lacking the entire RS domain or possessing a minimal RS domain consisting of 10 consecutive RS dipeptides (RS10). In vitro splicing of a pre-mRNA that requires an RS domain could take place when the mutant RD, RE, or RS10 domain replaced the natural domain. The RS10 version of SF2/ASF shuttled between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in the same manner as the wild-type protein, suggesting that a tract of consecutive RS dipeptides, in conjunction with the RRMs of SF2/ASF, is necessary and sufficient to direct nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. However, the SR protein SC35 has two long stretches of RS repeats, yet it is not a shuttling protein. We demonstrate the presence of a dominant nuclear retention signal in the RS domain of SC35.
PMCID: PMC134038  PMID: 12215544
2.  Selection of Alternative 5′ Splice Sites: Role of U1 snRNP and Models for the Antagonistic Effects of SF2/ASF and hnRNP A1 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2000;20(22):8303-8318.
The first component known to recognize and discriminate among potential 5′ splice sites (5′SSs) in pre-mRNA is the U1 snRNP. However, the relative levels of U1 snRNP binding to alternative 5′SSs do not necessarily determine the splicing outcome. Strikingly, SF2/ASF, one of the essential SR protein-splicing factors, causes a dose-dependent shift in splicing to a downstream (intron-proximal) site, and yet it increases U1 snRNP binding at upstream and downstream sites simultaneously. We show here that hnRNP A1, which shifts splicing towards an upstream 5′SS, causes reduced U1 snRNP binding at both sites. Nonetheless, the importance of U1 snRNP binding is shown by proportionality between the level of U1 snRNP binding to the downstream site and its use in splicing. With purified components, hnRNP A1 reduces U1 snRNP binding to 5′SSs by binding cooperatively and indiscriminately to the pre-mRNA. Mutations in hnRNP A1 and SF2/ASF show that the opposite effects of the proteins on 5′SS choice are correlated with their effects on U1 snRNP binding. Cross-linking experiments show that SF2/ASF and hnRNP A1 compete to bind pre-mRNA, and we conclude that this competition is the basis of their functional antagonism; SF2/ASF enhances U1 snRNP binding at all 5′SSs, the rise in simultaneous occupancy causing a shift in splicing towards the downstream site, whereas hnRNP A1 interferes with U1 snRNP binding such that 5′SS occupancy is lower and the affinities of U1 snRNP for the individual sites determine the site of splicing.
PMCID: PMC102138  PMID: 11046128
3.  The Mkk3/6-p38–Signaling Cascade Alters the Subcellular Distribution of Hnrnp A1 and Modulates Alternative Splicing Regulation 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2000;149(2):307-316.
Individual members of the serine-arginine (SR) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A/B families of proteins have antagonistic effects in regulating alternative splicing. Although hnRNP A1 accumulates predominantly in the nucleus, it shuttles continuously between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Some but not all SR proteins also undergo nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling, which is affected by phosphorylation of their serine/arginine (RS)–rich domain. The signaling mechanisms that control the subcellular localization of these proteins are unknown. We show that exposure of NIH-3T3 and SV-40 transformed green monkey kidney (COS) cells to stress stimuli such as osmotic shock or UVC irradiation, but not to mitogenic activators such as PDGF or EGF, results in a marked cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP A1, concomitant with an increase in its phosphorylation. These effects are mediated by the MKK3/6-p38 pathway, and moreover, p38 activation is necessary and sufficient for the induction of hnRNP A1 cytoplasmic accumulation. The stress-induced increase in the cytoplasmic levels of hnRNP A/B proteins and the concomitant decrease in their nuclear abundance are paralleled by changes in the alternative splicing pattern of an adenovirus E1A pre-mRNA splicing reporter. These results suggest the intriguing possibility that signaling mechanisms regulate pre-mRNA splicing in vivo by influencing the subcellular distribution of splicing factors.
PMCID: PMC2175157  PMID: 10769024
alternative splicing; hnRNP A1; signal transduction; p38 kinase; stress signaling
4.  Serine Phosphorylation of SR Proteins Is Required for Their Recruitment to Sites of Transcription In Vivo  
The Journal of Cell Biology  1998;143(2):297-307.
Expression of most RNA polymerase II transcripts requires the coordinated execution of transcription, splicing, and 3′ processing. We have previously shown that upon transcriptional activation of a gene in vivo, pre-mRNA splicing factors are recruited from nuclear speckles, in which they are concentrated, to sites of transcription (Misteli, T., J.F. Cáceres, and D.L. Spector. 1997. Nature. 387:523–527). This recruitment process appears to spatially coordinate transcription and pre-mRNA splicing within the cell nucleus. Here we have investigated the molecular basis for recruitment by analyzing the recruitment properties of mutant splicing factors. We show that multiple protein domains are required for efficient recruitment of SR proteins from nuclear speckles to nascent RNA. The two types of modular domains found in the splicing factor SF2/ ASF exert distinct functions in this process. In living cells, the RS domain functions in the dissociation of the protein from speckles, and phosphorylation of serine residues in the RS domain is a prerequisite for this event. The RNA binding domains play a role in the association of splicing factors with the target RNA. These observations identify a novel in vivo role for the RS domain of SR proteins and suggest a model in which protein phosphorylation is instrumental for the recruitment of these proteins to active sites of transcription in vivo.
PMCID: PMC2132840  PMID: 9786943
nucleus; phosphorylation; pre-mRNA splicing; recruitment; transcription
5.  Role of the Modular Domains of SR Proteins in Subnuclear Localization and Alternative Splicing Specificity 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1997;138(2):225-238.
SR proteins are required for constitutive pre-mRNA splicing and also regulate alternative splice site selection in a concentration-dependent manner. They have a modular structure that consists of one or two RNA-recognition motifs (RRMs) and a COOH-terminal arginine/serine-rich domain (RS domain). We have analyzed the role of the individual domains of these closely related proteins in cellular distribution, subnuclear localization, and regulation of alternative splicing in vivo. We observed striking differences in the localization signals present in several human SR proteins. In contrast to earlier studies of RS domains in the Drosophila suppressor-of-white-apricot (SWAP) and Transformer (Tra) alternative splicing factors, we found that the RS domain of SF2/ASF is neither necessary nor sufficient for targeting to the nuclear speckles. Although this RS domain is a nuclear localization signal, subnuclear targeting to the speckles requires at least two of the three constituent domains of SF2/ASF, which contain additive and redundant signals. In contrast, in two SR proteins that have a single RRM (SC35 and SRp20), the RS domain is both necessary and sufficient as a targeting signal to the speckles. We also show that RRM2 of SF2/ASF plays an important role in alternative splicing specificity: deletion of this domain results in a protein that, although active in alternative splicing, has altered specificity in 5′ splice site selection. These results demonstrate the modularity of SR proteins and the importance of individual domains for their cellular localization and alternative splicing function in vivo.
PMCID: PMC2138183  PMID: 9230067

Results 1-5 (5)