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1.  Connections between Alternative Transcription and Alternative Splicing in Mammals 
The majority of mammalian genes produce multiple transcripts resulting from alternative splicing (AS) and/or alternative transcription initiation (ATI) and alternative transcription termination (ATT). Comparative analysis of the number of alternative nucleotides, isoforms, and introns per locus in genes with different types of alternative events suggests that ATI and ATT contribute to the diversity of human and mouse transcriptome even more than AS. There is a strong negative correlation between AS and ATI in 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) and AS in coding sequences (CDSs) but an even stronger positive correlation between AS in CDSs and ATT in 3′ UTRs. These observations could reflect preferential regulation of distinct, large groups of genes by different mechanisms: 1) regulation at the level of transcription initiation and initiation of translation resulting from ATI and AS in 5′ UTRs and 2) posttranslational regulation by different protein isoforms. The tight linkage between AS in CDSs and ATT in 3′ UTRs suggests that variability of 3′ UTRs mediates differential translational regulation of alternative protein forms. Together, the results imply coordinate evolution of AS and alternative transcription, processes that occur concomitantly within gene expression factories.
doi:10.1093/gbe/evq058
PMCID: PMC2975443  PMID: 20889654
alternative splicing; alternative transcription initiation; alternative transcription termination; gene expression factories
2.  Distinct Patterns of Expression and Evolution of Intronless and Intron-Containing Mammalian Genes 
Molecular Biology and Evolution  2010;27(8):1745-1749.
Comparison of expression levels and breadth and evolutionary rates of intronless and intron-containing mammalian genes shows that intronless genes are expressed at lower levels, tend to be tissue specific, and evolve significantly faster than spliced genes. By contrast, monomorphic spliced genes that are not subject to detectable alternative splicing and polymorphic alternatively spliced genes show similar statistically indistinguishable patterns of expression and evolution. Alternative splicing is most common in ancient genes, whereas intronless genes appear to have relatively recent origins. These results imply tight coupling between different stages of gene expression, in particular, transcription, splicing, and nucleocytosolic transport of transcripts, and suggest that formation of intronless genes is an important route of evolution of novel tissue-specific functions in animals.
doi:10.1093/molbev/msq086
PMCID: PMC2908711  PMID: 20360214
alternative splicing; intronless genes; monomorphic genes; polymorphic genes; mammalian gene evolution
3.  Congruent evolution of different classes of non-coding DNA in prokaryotic genomes 
Nucleic Acids Research  2002;30(19):4264-4271.
Prokaryotic genomes are considered to be ‘wall-to-wall’ genomes, which consist largely of genes for proteins and structural RNAs, with only a small fraction of the genomic DNA allotted to intergenic regions, which are thought to typically contain regulatory signals. The majority of bacterial and archaeal genomes contain 6–14% non-coding DNA. Significant positive correlations were detected between the fraction of non-coding DNA and inter- and intra-operonic distances, suggesting that different classes of non-coding DNA evolve congruently. In contrast, no correlation was found between any of these characteristics of non-coding sequences and the number of genes or genome size. Thus, the non-coding regions and the gene sets in prokaryotes seem to evolve in different regimes. The evolution of non-coding regions appears to be determined primarily by the selective pressure to minimize the amount of non-functional DNA, while maintaining essential regulatory signals, because of which the content of non-coding DNA in different genomes is relatively uniform and intra- and inter-operonic non-coding regions evolve congruently. In contrast, the gene set is optimized for the particular environmental niche of the given microbe, which results in the lack of correlation between the gene number and the characteristics of non-coding regions.
PMCID: PMC140549  PMID: 12364605

Results 1-3 (3)