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1.  Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with acute leukemia: similar outcomes in recipients of umbilical cord blood versus marrow or peripheral blood stem cells from related or unrelated donors 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2012;55(3):93-99.
Purpose
This study compared outcomes in children with acute leukemia who underwent transplantations with umbilical cord blood (UCB), bone marrow, or peripheral blood stem cells from a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched related donor (MRD) or an unrelated donor (URD).
Methods
This retrospective study included consecutive acute leukemia patients who underwent their first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at Samsung Medical Center between 2005 and 2010. Patients received stem cells from MRD (n=33), URD (n=46), or UCB (n=41).
Results
Neutrophil and platelet recovery were significantly longer after HSCT with UCB than with MRD or URD (P<0.01 for both). In multivariate analysis using the MRD group as a reference, the URD group had a significantly higher risk of grade III to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD; relative risk [RR], 15.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 186.2; P=0.03) and extensive chronic GVHD (RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 1.9 to 25.2; P<0.01). For all 3 donor types, 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival were similar. Extensive chronic GVHD was associated with fewer relapses (RR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.6; P<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that lower EFS was associated with advanced disease at transplantation (RR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 7.8; P<0.01) and total body irradiation (RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0 to 4.3; P=0.04).
Conclusion
Survival after UCB transplantation was similar to survival after MRD and URD transplantation. For patients lacking an HLA matched donor, the use of UCB is a suitable alternative.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2012.55.3.93
PMCID: PMC3315625  PMID: 22474464
Umbilical cord blood; Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Stem cell donor
2.  Responses and adverse effects of carboplatin-based chemotherapy for pediatric intracranial germ cell tumors 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2011;54(3):128-132.
Purpose
Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has been commonly used for the treatment of intracranial germ cell tumors (IC-GCTs). However, this treatment exhibits some adverse effects such as renal problems and hearing difficulty. Carboplatin-based chemotherapy was administered to pediatric patients with IC-GCTs from August 2004 at the Samsung Medical Center. In this study, we assessed the responses and adverse effects of carboplatin-based chemotherapy in pediatric IC-GCTs patients according to the risk group, and compared the results with those of the previous cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
Methods
We examined 35 patients (27 men and 8 women) diagnosed with IC-GCTs between August 2004 and April 2008 and received risk-adapted carboplatin-based chemotherapy at the Samsung Medical Center. Patients were divided into either low-risk (LR) or high-risk (HR) groups and a retrospective analysis was performed using information from the medical records.
Results
Although hematological complications were common, hearing difficulties or grade 3 or 4 creatinine level elevation were not observed in patients who underwent carboplatin-based chemotherapy. The frequency of febrile neutropenia did not differ between the risk groups. The overall survival was 100% and event-free survival (EFS) was 95.7%. The EFS rate was 100% in the LR group and 90% in the HR group, respectively.
Conclusion
Despite their common occurrence in high-risk patients, no lethal hematological complications were associated with carboplatin-based treatment. The current carboplatin-based chemotherapy protocol is safe and effective for the treatment of pediatric patients with IC-GCTs.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2011.54.3.128
PMCID: PMC3120999  PMID: 21738543
Intracranial germ cell tumor; Carboplatin; Adverse effects
3.  Efficacy of Itraconazole Prophylaxis for Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Children with High-Risk Solid Tumors: A Prospective Double-Blind Randomized Study 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2011;52(2):293-300.
Purpose
The risk of invasive fungal infection is greater for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) than for autologous transplantation. Therefore, many transplantation centers use antifungal prophylaxis for allogeneic HSCT, however, there exists no standard guidelines or consensus regarding autologous HSCT.
Materials and Methods
A prospective double-blind randomized study was conducted in autologous HSCT recipients who were divided into prophylaxis and empirical treatment groups, and we investigated the efficacy of itraconazole prophylaxis in pediatric autologous HSCT.
Results
Total 87 autologous HSCT episodes in 55 children with high-risk solid tumors were studied. No invasive fungal infections occurred in either group. However, patients in the prophylaxis group had a significantly shorter duration of fever (p < 0.05) and received antibacterial treatment of shorter duration (p < 0.05) with fewer numbers of antibiotics (p < 0.05 for the use of second line antibiotics) than those in the empirical group. No significant additional adverse events were found with itraconazole prophylaxis.
Conclusion
Although beneficial effects such as a shorter duration of fever and reduced need for antibiotic use were observed in the prophylaxis group, the results were not sufficient to draw a definite recommendation about the routine use of antifungal prophylaxis in pediatric autologous HSCT recipients with high-risk solid tumors (Trial registration: NCT00336531).
doi:10.3349/ymj.2011.52.2.293
PMCID: PMC3051209  PMID: 21319349
Itraconazole; autologous transplantation; antifungal prophylaxis; solid tumor

Results 1-3 (3)