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1.  Overexpression of X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (XIAP) is an Independent Unfavorable Prognostic Factor in Childhood de Novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(4):605-613.
The overexpression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), a member of IAP family protein, is intuitively expected to be associated with unfavorable clinical features in malignancies; however, there have been only a very limited number of studies reporting the clinical relevance of XIAP expression. This study was performed to investigate the prognostic relevance of XIAP expression in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In 53 children with de novo AML, the level of XIAP expression was determined by using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and was analyzed with respect to the clinical characteristics at diagnosis and treatment outcomes. As a result, the XIAP expression was found to be higher in patients with extramedullary disease than in those without (P=0.014). In addition, XIAP overexpression (≥median expression) was associated with an unfavorable day 7 response to induction chemotherapy and also associated with a worse 3-yr relapsefree survival rate (52.7±20.9% vs. 85.9±14.8%, P=0.014). Multivariate analyses revealed that XIAP overexpression was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for relapse-free survival (hazard ratio, 6.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-25.74; P=0.013). Collectively, XIAP overexpression may be used as an unfavorable prognostic marker in childhood AML.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.4.605
PMCID: PMC2719207  PMID: 19654940
X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein; Apoptosis; Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
2.  Cotransplanted Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) Enhanced Engraftment of Hematopoietic Stem Cells in a MSC-dose Dependent Manner in NOD/SCID Mice 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(6):1000-1004.
Transplantation of marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), expanded by culture in addition to whole bone marrow, has been shown to enhance engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Our hypothesis was that there might be an optimum ratio range that could enhance engraftment. We examined the percent donor chimerism according to the ratio of HSCs to MSCs in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. We tested a series of ratios of co-transplanted CD34+-selected bone marrow cells, and marrow-derived MSCs into sublethally irradiated NOD/SCID mice. In all experiments, 1×105 bone marrow derived human CD34+ cells were administered to each mouse and human MSCs from different donors were infused concomitantly. We repeated the procedure three times and evaluated engraftment with flow cytometry four weeks after each transplantation. Serial ratios of HSCs to MSCs were 1:0, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4, in the first experiment, 1:0, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:8 in the second and 1:0, 1:1, 1:4, 1:8 and 1:16 in the third. Cotransplantation of HSCs and MSCs enhanced engraftment as the dose of MSCs increased. Our results suggest that the optimal ratio of HSCs and MSCs for cotransplantation might be in the range of 1:8-1:16; whereas, an excessive dose of MSCs might decrease engraftment efficiency.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2006.21.6.1000
PMCID: PMC2721918  PMID: 17179676
Hematopoietic Stem Cells; Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Transplantation; Mice, SCID; Engraftment
3.  Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein is Overexpressed in Patients with Unfavorable Prognostic Factors in Breast Cancer 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(Suppl):S17-S23.
Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) is a recently identified inhibitor of apoptosis protein. However, the clinical relevance of NAIP expression is not completely understood. In an attempt to determine the clinical relevance of NAIP expression in breast cancer, the levels of NAIP and survivin expression were measured in 117 breast cancer samples and 10 normal breast tissues using quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. While there was no evidence of NAIP expression in the normal breast tissue, NAIP was expressed in all breast cancer samples. The level of NAIP expression in breast cancer was significantly higher (257 times) than in the universal tumor control. There was a strong correlation between the level of NAIP expression and the level of survivin expression (p=0.001). The level of NAIP expression in patients with a large tumor (≥T2) and patients with an unfavorable histology (nuclear grade III) was significantly higher than in those patients with a small tumor (T1) and patients with a favorable histology (nuclear grade I, II) (p=0.026 and p=0.050, respectively). Although the level of NAIP expression was higher in patients with other unfavorable prognostic factors, it was not significant. The three-year relapse-free survival rate was not significantly the patients showing high NAIP expression and patients showing low NAIP expression (86.47±4.79% vs. 78.74±6.57%). Further studies should include the expressions of NAIP in a larger number of patients and for a longer period of follow-up to evaluate correlation with metastasis and treatment outcome. In conclusion, NAIP is overexpressed in breast cancer patients with unfavorable clinical features such as stage and tumor size, suggesting that NAIP would play a role in the disease manifestation.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2007.22.S.S17
PMCID: PMC2694398  PMID: 17923748
Breast Cancer; Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitory rotein (NAIP); Apoptosis; Prognostic Factor; Clinical Relevance

Results 1-3 (3)