Most of thyroid lymphomas are B-lineage, and T-cell lymphomas are rare. Here, we report a case of primary thyroid T-cell lymphoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A 48-yr-old woman presented with incidentally found neck mass. Histologically, the resected right lobe of the thyroid was replaced by monomorphic small atypical lymphoid cells with lymphoepithelial lesion-like change, most of which were immunoreactive for CD3, CD8, βF-1, and TIA-1. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified, was finally diagnosed after molecular study for TCR-γ gene rearrangement. This is the second case of cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma reported in the thyroid gland so far. Unique association between thyroid follicles and neoplastic lymphocytes may be characteristic feature of this type of T-cell lymphoma.
Lymphoma, T-Cell; Thyroid Gland; T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic; Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone
Although germline mutations of met proto-oncogene on human chromosome 7q31-34 have been known as useful molecular markers of hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the expression of MET, a product of met proto-oncogene, has not been fully studied in sporadic RCC, along with its clinical significance. We investigated the expression of MET by immunohistochemistry in 182 cases of renal neoplasm encompassing 145 RCC, 25 urothelial carcinomas of renal pelvis, and 12 oncocytomas. MET was diffusely and strongly expressed in 90% of papillary RCC, all collecting duct carcinomas, and 92% of urothelial carcinomas of renal pelvis. On the contrary, clear cell RCC, chromophobe RCC, and oncocytomas were negative or focally positive for MET expression. In clear cell RCC, MET expression was positively correlated with high nuclear grade, presence of infiltrative growth, tumoral necrosis, papillary architecture, sarcomatoid component, tumoral involvement of the renal pelvis or ureter, involvement of the calyx, and lymphatic invasion. In conclusion, diffuse and strong expression of MET in papillary RCC and collecting duct carcinoma might be helpful in discriminating from the other subtypes of RCC with tubular or papillary growth. In case of MET expression observed in clear cell RCC, it might correlate with those clinicopathological parameters implying aggressive behavior.
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met; Carcinoma, Renal Cell; Kidney Neoplasms; Kidney; Immunohistochemistry
Syphilis is an unexpected diagnosis in the stomach, and the reduced incidence of syphilis has made its clinical presentation less widely appreciated. We report a 43-yr-old man suffering from epigastric tenderness with an initial diagnosis of gastric carcinoma; gastric syphilis was confirmed by demonstrating spirochetes in a gastric biopsy specimen by silver impregnation. Excessive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with diffuse thickening of gastric rugae should raise suspicion of gastric syphilis, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diffuse erosive gastritis and infiltrative lesions of the stomach.
Stomach; Syphilis; Gastritis; Treponema Pallium
Granulocytic sarcoma is a rare extramedullary tumor composed of myeloid progenitor cells. Primary involvement of the biliary tract without evidence of leukemia is exceedingly rare. Here, we report an isolated biliary granulocytic sarcoma in a 30-yr-old man who presented with jaundice, fever, and chill without any evidence of leukemia. However, five months after the diagnosis, he developed acute myelogenous leukemia with multilineage dysplasia and chromosomal abnormality. A rare possibility of biliary granulocytic sarcoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with obstructive jaundice. A histologic evaluation by aggressive diagnostic intervention is important and may improve prognosis.
Sarcoma, Granulocytic; Leukemia; Jaundice, Obstructive; Bile Ducts
To evaluate the frequency of bone marrow involvement by nasal-type NK/T cell lymphoma, we retrospectively studied biopsy specimens from 40 patients by EBV in situ hybridization (ISH). Three patients had marrow involvement at initial diagnosis (7.5%). In one patient (1/40, 2.5%), the disease in bone marrow was recognized by routine morphological assessment, while two other patients had minimal involvement of lymphoma cells which was recognized only by EBV in situ hybridization (2/40, 5%). Two patients had a disseminated disease at diagnosis and died 6 days and 214 days after diagnosis. One patient had diffuse colonic lesion and died 82 days later. In conclusion, marrow involvement in nasal NK/T cell lymphoma is infrequent at initial diagnosis, and EBV ISH is a useful technique for identifying the minor subgroup of patients which have easily overlooked neoplastic involvement.
Killer Cell, Natural; Lymphoma; Herpesvirus 4, Human; In Situ Hybridization; Bone Marrow
This study is to identify the spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) and relationships between these diseases in Korea. The EBV status and clinicopathology of 764 patients, including acute EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH), chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infections, B-LPD arising in chronic latent EBV infection, T & natural killer (NK) cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), B-NHLs, and Hodgkin's lymphomas (HD), were analyzed. T or NK cell NHLs were the most common forms of EBV-positive NHLs (107/167, 64%); among these, nasal-type NK/T cell lymphomas were the most common (89/107, 83%). According to the age, Burkitt's lymphoma was the most common in early childhood; in teenagers, chronic (active) EBV infection-associated LPD was the most common type. The incidence of NK/T cell lymphoma began to increase from the twenties and formed the major type of EBV-associated tumor throughout life. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma formed the major type in the sixties and seventies. In conclusion, primary infections in early childhood are complicated by the development of CAEBV infections that are main predisposing factors for EBV-associated T or NK cell malignancies in young adults. In old patients, decreased immunity associated with old age and environmental cofactors may provoke the development of peripheral T cell lymphoma, unspecified, and diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Lymphoma; Epstein-Barr Virus; Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic
The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy by using a radiotracer lymphatic mapping technique in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, and the diagnostic value of this technique. We studied twenty patients with previously untreated squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and N0 necks. After the peritumoral injection of 99mTc filtered tin colloid preop-eratively, lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative mapping using a gamma detector were performed to localize sentinel nodes. An open biopsy of the sentinel node was followed by complete neck dissection. We identified the sentinel nodes in 19 of 20 patients (95.0%) by lymphoscintigraphy and in all (100%) by intraoperative gamma detector. In all cases, the status of the sentinel node accurately predicted the pathologic status of the neck with the false negative rate being 0%. The negative predictive value for the absence of cervical metastases was 100%. In conclusion, our radio-localization technique of sentinel nodes using 99mTc filtered tin colloid in N0 squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity is technically feasible and appears to accurately predict the presence of the occult metastatic disease.
Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy; Lymphatic Metastasis; Mouth Neoplasms; Radionuclide Imaging
In CD5 positive (CD5+) mature B-cell lymphomas, newly recognized CD5+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been characterized by aggressive features. We studied twenty-five cases with CD5+ lymphomas involving bone marrow. Eleven cases were diagnosed as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, six cases were diagnosed as mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and three cases with morphologic characteristics of MCL and without both the cyclin D1 expression and IGH/CCND1 rearrangement were unclassifiable. The remaining five cases, showing large to medium-sized lym-phoid cells with prominent nucleoli and a moderate amount of cytoplasm, were diagnosed as DLBCL. Five DLBCL cases were positive for CD5, CD20, surface immuno-globulin, but negative for CD23. Patients with CD5+ DLBCL showed a high age of onset (median, 68 yr) and two patients expired one month after the diagnosis. Since CD5+ DLBCL forms a distinct subgroup of DLBCL, a study of CD5 expression in DLBCL would be helpful to predict prognosis and to determine future therapeutic strategy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on de novo CD5+ DLBCL in Koreans.
Antigens, CD5; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic; Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell; Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Diffuse
Angiosarcoma of the thyroid has long been a controversial entity, and it is histologically defined as cleft-like anastosmosing spaces lined by large, atypical cells of endothelial lineage. However, clear-cut separation between the angiosarcoma and anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid is difficult because they yield nearly the same clinical prognosis and overlapping histologic findings. We report a case of thyroid neoplasm composed of minimally invasive well differentiated follicular carcinoma and angiosarcoma with intervening transitional area. Immunohistochemically, the angiosarcomatous portion showed focal immunoreactivity for endothelial markers such as CD31, CD34, Ulex europaeus 1 lectin, factor VIII-related antigen, and immunonegativity for epithelial markers including pancytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen and thyroglobulin, whereas the reverse was demonstrated in the minimally invasive follicular carcinomatous portion. The follicular carcinoma portion was positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). Each component showed ultrastructural findings of epithelial and endothelial differentiation, respectively. The present case was unique in that angiosarcoma of the thyroid was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, as well as light microscopy, and also coexisted with a minimally invasive well differentiated follicular carcinoma in the same mass. This combination has never been described in the literature. Although restricted to a single case, the present case further supports that angiosarcoma is a true existent entity rather than a variant of anaplastic carcinoma.
Hematopoietic neoplasm coexpressing CD4 and CD56 includes a subset of acute myeloid leukemia with myelomonocytic differentiation, plasmacytoid monocyte tumor, and other immature hematopoietic neoplasms of undefined origin. Herein, we report a CD4+CD56+CD68+ hematopoietic tumor that was thought to be a tumor of plasmacytoid monocytes. This case is unique in the absence of accompanying myelomonocytic leukemia and the faint expression of cCD3 on the tumor cells. The patient was a 22-yr old man presented with multiple lymphadenopathy and an involvement of the bone marrow. Tumor cells were large and monomorphic with an angulated eosinophilic cytoplasm of moderate amount. Nuclei of most tumor cells were eccentric and round with one or two prominent nucleoli. Rough endoplasmic reticulum was prominent in electron microscopic examination. Tumor cells expressed CD4, CD7, CD10, CD45RB, CD56, CD68, and HLA-DR and were negative for CD1a, CD2, sCD3, CD5, CD13, CD14, CD20, CD33, CD34, CD43, CD45RA, TIA-1, S-100, and TdT. cCD3 was not detected in the immunostaining using paraffin tissue, but was faintly expressed in flow cytometry and immunostaining using a touch imprint slide. T-cell receptor gene rearrangement analysis and EBV in situ hybridization showed negative results. Cytochemically, myeloperoxidase, Sudan black B, and alpha naphthyl butyrate esterase were all negative.