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author:("Ko, Young-yeh")
1.  Clinical outcomes of radiation therapy for early-stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma 
AIM: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of radiation therapy (RT) for early-stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma).
METHODS: The records of 64 patients treated between 1998 and 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. For Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-positive patients (n = 31), chemotherapy or H. pylori eradication therapy was the initial treatment. In patients with failure after H. pylori eradication, RT was performed. For H. pylori-negative patients (n = 33), chemotherapy or RT was the first-line treatment. The median RT dose was 36 Gy. The target volume included the entire stomach and the perigastric lymph node area.
RESULTS: All of the patients completed RT without interruption and showed complete remission on endoscopic biopsy after treatment. Over a median follow-up period of 39 mo, the 5-year local control rate was 89%. Salvage therapy was successful in all relapsed patients. Secondary malignancies developed in three patients. The 5-year overall survival rate was 94%. No patient presented symptoms of moderate-to-severe treatment-related toxicities during or after RT.
CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy results in favorable clinical outcomes in patients with early-stage gastric MALToma who experience failure of H. pylori eradication therapy and those who are H. pylori negative.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i36.6062
PMCID: PMC3785628  PMID: 24106407
Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; Radiation therapy; Treatment response
2.  EBV-Positive T/NK-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disease of Childhood 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2013;47(2):137-147.
Background
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), EBV-positive systemic T-cell lymphoproliferative disease (STLPD) of childhood, and chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection may develop after primary EBV infection. This study reviewed the clinicopathological spectrum of EBV-associated T- and natural killer (NK)-cell LPD, including STLPD and CAEBV infection, with an analysis of T-cell clonality.
Methods
Clinicopathological features of seven patients with EBV-associated HLH or STLPD and 12 patients with CAEBV infection were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining and a T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement study were performed.
Results
STLPD and EBV-positive HLH showed significantly overlapping clinicopathological findings. One patient with STLPD and one patient with EBV-positive HLH demonstrated moderate to severe atypia of the infiltrating lymphocytes, whereas the remaining patients lacked significant atypia. Twelve patients had CAEBV infection, four of whom suffered mosquito-bite hypersensitivity, five showed NK lymphocytosis, and one suffered hydroa vacciniforme. Infiltrating lymphocytes were predominantly small and devoid of atypia. Hemophagocytic histiocytosis was found in seven of 11 patients. Monoclonality was detected in three (50%) of the six patients with successful TCR gene analysis.
Conclusions
EBV-positive HLH and STLPD share similar clinicopathological findings and may constitute a continuous spectrum of acute EBV-associated T- or NK-cell proliferative disorders. The distinction of EBV-positive T-cell LPD from EBV-positive HLH may be difficult during routine diagnoses because of the technical limitations of clonality assessment.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2013.47.2.137
PMCID: PMC3647126  PMID: 23667373
Epstein-Barr virus infections; Lymphoma, T-cell; Killer cells, natural; Lymphoproliferative disorders; Clonality
3.  Brentuximab vedotin for relapsed or refractory CD30+ Hodgkin lymphoma: a multicenter analysis from Asia 
OncoTargets and therapy  2014;7:1717-1722.
Introduction
Brentuximab vedotin (SGN-35), an anti-cluster of differentiation (CD)-30 antibody conjugated to the anti-tubulin agent monomethyl auristatin E, has demonstrated promising efficacy and tolerability in relapsed and heavily treated Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). In this study, we report the Asian experience with brentuximab vedotin in patients with relapsed or refractory CD30-positive (CD30+) HL.
Methods
This is an observational, multicenter, retrospective study. Between October 2011 and June 2013, a total of 22 patients were treated with brentuximab vedotin under a named patient program in Asia. Patients received a 30 min infusion of brentuximab vedotin at a dose of 1.8 mg/kg of body weight every 3 weeks.
Results
Four patients (18.2%) showed a complete response, and the overall response rate was 72.7%. The median duration of response was 4.4 months (range 1.0–17.4). The median progression-free survival was 5.7 months, and the median overall survival has not yet been reached. The 1-year expected survival rate was 67.2%. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia (n=7; 31.8%). No patients experienced grade 3/4 sensory neuropathy.
Conclusions
These results confirm that brentuximab vedotin as a single agent is also effective and well tolerated when used in Asian patients with relapsed and refractory CD30+ HL.
doi:10.2147/OTT.S67380
PMCID: PMC4196794  PMID: 25328405
Asian; efficacy; safety
4.  Unusual Manifestation of Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Severe Hypercalcemia with Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein 
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It usually presents with nonspecific symptoms, such as fever, rather than with overt lymphadenopathy. Reports of hypercalcemia, as the initial presentation of IVLBCL, are limited in the literature, despite it being a well-known complication of various solid cancers. We present a 68-year-old male with severe hypercalcemia and increased levels of serum parathyroid hormone-related protein. He was diagnosed with IVLBCL, involving the bone marrow and spleen, and was successfully treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy. A few previous case reports have shown hypercalcemia in patients with IVLBCL. Much like our case, previous cases with hypercalcemia had advanced diseases, including bone marrow invasion. Although it was an extremely rare manifestation of IVLBCL, we suggest that IVLBCL should be a part of the differential diagnosis in patients with unexplained hypercalcemia. Therefore, an active work-up might be recommended, including positron emission tomography/ computed tomography scan and bone marrow examination, which may be useful for early diagnosis.
doi:10.4143/crt.2014.46.3.307
PMCID: PMC4132453  PMID: 25038766
Intravascular lymphoma; Hypercalcemia; Parathyroid hormone-related protein
5.  Primary CNS lymphoma other than DLBCL: a descriptive analysis of clinical features and treatment outcomes 
Annals of Hematology  2011;90(12):1391-1398.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) constitutes most primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (PCNSL), whereas T-cell, low-grade and Burkitt’s lymphomas (BL) are rarely encountered. Due to the paucity of cases, little is known about the clinical features and treatment outcomes of PCNSL other than DLBCL. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes for patients with PCNSL other than DLBCL. Fifteen patients, newly diagnosed with PCNSLs other than DLBCL between 2000 and 2010, were included. The male to female ratio was 0.67:1 with a median age of diagnosis of 31 years (range 18–59). Pathologic distributions were as follows: peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; n = 7), marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL; n = 1), lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL; n = 2), Burkitt’s lymphoma (n = 1), other unspecified (T-cell lineage, n = 2; B-cell lineage, n = 2). Thirteen patients (87%) showed Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score (ECOG PS) 1–2. The remaining two were one PTCL patient and one Burkitt’s lymphoma patient. Of the nine patients with T-cell lymphoma, five (56%) had multifocal lesions, and one (20%) with LPL of the five patients with B-cell lymphoma showed a single lesion. Leptomeningeal lymphomatosis was identified in two patients (one with Burkitt’s lymphoma and one with unspecified B-cell lymphoma). Two patients (22%) with T-cell lymphoma died 7.7 and 23.3 months later, respectively, due to disease progression, despite HD-MTX-based therapy. Six patients with T-cell lymphoma (6/9, 66.7%) and four patients with low-grade B-cell lymphoma (4/5, 80%) achieved complete response and have survived without relapse (Table 3). One patient with Burkitt’s lymphoma showed poor clinical features with ECOG PS 3, deep structure, multifocal, and leptomeningeal lymphomatosis, and died 7.6 months after the initiation of treatment. In comparison with previously reported DLBCLs (median OS 6.4 years, 95% CI 3.7–9.1 years), T-cell lymphoma showed equivocal or favorable clinical outcomes and low-grade B-cell lymphomas, such as MZBCL and LPL, had a good prognosis. However, primary CNS Burkitt’s lymphoma presented poor clinical outcomes and showed a comparatively aggressive clinical course. In conclusion, primary CNS lymphoma other than DLBCL occurred more in younger patients and showed a generally good prognosis, except for Burkitt’s lymphoma. Further research on treatment strategies for Burkitt’s lymphoma is needed.
doi:10.1007/s00277-011-1225-0
PMCID: PMC3210363  PMID: 21479535
Primary CNS lymphoma; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

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