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1.  Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Peanut Allergy-Specific Loci and Evidence of Epigenetic Mediation in U.S. Children 
Nature communications  2015;6:6304.
Food allergy (FA) affects 2–10% of U.S. children and is a growing clinical and public health problem. Here we conduct the first genome-wide association study of well-defined FA, including specific subtypes (peanut, milk, and egg) in 2,759 U.S. participants (1,315 children; 1,444 parents) from the Chicago Food Allergy Study; and identify peanut allergy (PA)-specific loci in the HLA-DR and -DQ gene region at 6p21.32, tagged by rs7192 (p=5.5×10−8) and rs9275596 (p=6.8×10−10), in 2,197 participants of European ancestry. We replicate these associations in an independent sample of European ancestry. These associations are further supported by meta-analyses across the discovery and replication samples. Both single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with differential DNA methylation levels at multiple CpG sites (p<5×10−8); and differential DNA methylation of the HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DRB1 genes partially mediate the identified SNP-PA associations. This study suggests that the HLA-DR and -DQ gene region likely poses significant genetic risk for PA.
doi:10.1038/ncomms7304
PMCID: PMC4340086  PMID: 25710614
2.  Dissociation between the Prevalence of Atopy and Allergic Disease in Rural China among Children and Adults 
Background
The prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing worldwide, but the reasons are not well understood. Previous studies suggest that this trend may be associated with lifestyle and urbanization.
Objective
To describe patterns of sensitization and allergic disease in an unselected agricultural Chinese population.
Methods
The data was derived from a community-based twin study in Anqing, China. Skin prick testing was performed to foods and aeroallergens. Atopy was defined as sensitization to ≥1 allergen. Allergic disease was ascertained by self-report. The analysis was stratified by sex and age (children [11-17 years] and adults [≥18 years]) and included 1059 same-sex twin pairs.
Results
Of 2118 subjects, 57.6% were male (n=1220). Ages ranged from 11-71 years; 43.3% were children (n=918). Atopy was observed in 47.2% (n=999) of participants. The most common sensitizing foods were shellfish (16.7%) and peanut (12.3%). The most common sensitizing aeroallergens were dust mite (30.6%) and cockroach (25.2%). Birth order and zygosity had no effect on sensitization rates. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed risk factors for sensitization include age for foods and sex for aeroallergens. The rates of food allergy and asthma were estimated to be <1%.
Conclusions
Atopic sensitization was common in this rural farming Chinese population, particularly to shellfish, peanut, dust mite, and cockroach. The prevalence of allergic disease, in contrast, was quite low.
Clinical Implications
Allergen sensitization was far more common than the rate of self-reported allergic disease in this community. Evidence of sensitization is an inadequate marker of allergic disease and better correlates with clinical disease are needed.
Capsule summary
Among this large unselected Chinese rural farming community, atopy was observed in nearly half of the study subjects, but the rate of allergic disease was comparatively very low.
doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.08.009
PMCID: PMC2747487  PMID: 18805578
aeroallergens; rural; farming community; Chinese; food allergens; prevalence; sensitization; skin prick tests

Results 1-2 (2)