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1.  MR Evaluation of Radiation Synovectomy of the Knee by Means of Intra-articular Injection of Holmium-166-Chitosan Complex in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results at 4-month Follow-up 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2003;4(3):170-178.
Objective
To determine whether MRI is able to demonstrate the effect of radiation synovectomy after the intra-articular injection of holmium-166-chitosan complex for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis of the knee.
Materials and Methods
Fourteen patients aged 36-59 years were treated with 10-20 mCi of holmium-166-chitosan complex. A criterion for inclusion in this study was the absence of observable improvement after 3- or more months of treatment of the knee with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. MR images were acquired both prior to and 4-months after treatment. Clinical evaluation included the use of visual analog scales to assess pain, and the circumference of the knee and its range of motion were also determined. MR evaluation included measurement of the volume of synovial enhancement and wall thickness, the amount of joint effusion, and quantifiable scoring of bone erosion, bone edema and lymph nodes.
Results
Visual analog scale readings decreased significantly after radiation synovectomy (p < 0.05). MRI showed that joint effusion decreased significantly (p < 0.05), and that the volume of synovial enhancement tended to decrease, but to an insignificant extent (p = 0.107).
Conclusion
The decreased joint effusion noted at 4-month follow-up resulted from radiation synovectomy of the rheumatoid knee by means of intra-articular injection of holmium-166-chitosan complex.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2003.4.3.170
PMCID: PMC2698084  PMID: 14530646
Knee, MR, Rheumatoid arthritis, Radiation synovectomy
2.  A practical protocol for titrating "optimal" PEEP in acute lung injury: recruitment maneuver and PEEP decrement. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2003;18(3):349-354.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a practical protocol for titrating positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) involving recruitment maneuver (RM) and decremental PEEP. Seventeen consecutive patients with acute lung injury who underwent PEEP titration were included in the analysis. After baseline ventilation, RM (continuous positive airway pressure, 35 cm H2O for 45 sec) was performed and PEEP was increased to 20 cmH2O or the highest PEEP guaranteeing the minimal tidal volume of 5 mL/kg. Then PEEP was decreased every 20 min in 2 cmH2O decrements. The "optimal" PEEP was defined as the lowest PEEP attainable without causing a significant drop (>10%) in PaO2. The "optimal PEEP" was 14.5 +/- 3.8 cmH2O. PaO2 /FI O2 ratio was 154.8 +/- 63.3 mmHg at baseline and improved to 290.0 +/- 96.4 mmHg at highest PEEP and 302.7 +/- 94.2 mmHg at "optimal PEEP", both significantly higher than baseline (p<0.05). Static compliance was significantly higher at "optimal" PEEP (27.2 +/- 10.4 mL/ cmH2O) compared to highest PEEP (22.3 +/- 7.7 mL/cmH2O) (p<0.05). Three patients experienced transient hypotension and one patient experienced atrial premature contractions. No patient had gross barotrauma. PEEP titration protocol involving RM and PEEP decrement was effective in improving oxygenation and was generally well-tolerated.
PMCID: PMC3055042  PMID: 12808320
3.  Infarct size-limiting effect of calcium preconditioning in rabbit hearts. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2003;18(3):337-343.
Recent studies demonstrated that brief period of Ca2+ depletion and repletion (Ca2+ preconditioning, CPC) has strong protective effects against ischemia in a rat heart. CPC and classic preconditioning (IPC) were compared in relation with infarct size and protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes. Isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were subjected to 45-min ischemia (Isc) followed by 120-min reperfusion (R) with or without IPC, induced by 5-min Isc and 10-min R. In the CPC hearts, 5-min Ca2+ depletion and 10-min repletion (CPC) were given before 45-min Isc, with or without concurrent PKC inhibition (calphostin C, 200 nmol/L). IPC enhanced recovery of LV function, while CPC did not. Infarct size was significantly reduced by both CPC and IPC (p < 0.05 vs. ischemic control). Membrane PKC was significantly increased from 2.53 +/- 0.07 (baseline, nmol/g tissue) to 3.11+/-0.07, 3.34 +/- 0.11, 3.15 +/- 0.09, and 3.06 +/- 0.08 by IPC, IPC and 45-min Isc, CPC and 45-min Isc, respectively (p < 0.01). Immunoblots of membrane PKC were increased by IPC, IPC and 45-min Isc, and CPC. These effects were abolished by PKC inhibition. Thus, activation of PKC may have trigger role in the mechanism of cardioprotective effect by CPC.
PMCID: PMC3055049  PMID: 12808318
4.  Neurologic complications of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 infection. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2003;18(2):149-157.
A wide variety of neurologic complications associated with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection result from HIV-1 itself or secondarily related to immunosuppression. In Korea, the number of HIV-1 seropositive populations is increasing, but little has been known about the neurologic complications of HIV-1 infection. To investigate the neurologic complications in HIV-1 infected Korean patients, we performed a cross-sectional study in consecutive admissions to the Seoul National University Hospital between March 1998 and June 1999. Thirty-four HIV-1 seropositive patients were included. As a result, a total of 26 HIV-1 related neurologic complications were identified from 17 patients. Among them, 10 patients showed cognitive/motor abnormalities: 3 HIV-1-associated dementia and 7 possible HIV-1-associated minor cognitive/motor disorder. Neuromuscular complications were found in 10 patients: 9 distal symmetric polyneuropathy, and 1 possible chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. In 3 patients with focal brain lesions, 2 were presumptively diagnosed as having primary CNS lymphoma, and 1 as having progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in the posterior fossa, based on history, clinical findings, serology, radiological appearances, and response to empirical therapy. Other complications included cryptococcal meningitis and only soft neurologic signs without any neurologic disease. Most of these complications (88%) occurred in the advanced stage of infection.
PMCID: PMC3055026  PMID: 12692408

Results 1-4 (4)