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1.  Influences of trunk muscles on lumbar lordosis and sacral angle 
European Spine Journal  2005;15(4):409-414.
Background: The strength of abdominal muscle and back extensors or their balances are commonly mentioned as major indicators of potential low back pain (LBP). Former studies on anthropometrics in terms of trunk muscle strength seemed to lack precision in methodology. Furthermore, the extension-flexion ratio, which is a good parameter of trunk muscle balance, was not as much studied as simple maximum torques in this area of study. Objectives: To investigate relationship between trunk muscle strength and lumbar lordosis, sacral angle in patients who did not show significant abnormal findings on their simple lateral radiograph. Methods: Thirty-one subjects were participated and their mean age was 35. Lumbar simple lateral radiograph was taken and lordotic angle was obtained by altered Cobb’s method. Sacral angle was also examined on the same film. The relationship between these angles and muscle strength (isometric maximum torques and ratios of them) was investigated by the correlation analysis. Results: None of the isometric maximum torques was related to sacral angle or lordotic angle. However, the ratio of extension to flexion was significantly related to the lordotic angle (Pearson’s correlation coefficient=0.491, p<0.01). Other ratios were not related to any of the angles. Conclusions: An imbalance in trunk muscle strength can influence significantly lordotic curve of lumbar spine and might be one risk factor for potential low back pain.
doi:10.1007/s00586-005-0976-5
PMCID: PMC3489319  PMID: 16151709
Lordosis; Sacral angle; Isometric measurement; Abdominal muscle function
2.  A Case of Polychondritis in a Patient with Behçet's Disease 
Polychondritis is an inflammatory disorder that affects various catilagenous structures, and the clinical features include auricular, nasal and respiratory tract chondritis. It also involves the eyes, audiovestibular apparatus, joints and vascular structures. Polychondritis can be associated with several rheumatologic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic vasculitis. However, polychondritis is a rare complication of Behçet's disease (BD) and only ten cases with combined BD and polychondritis have been reported on around the world. In this report, we describe a 40-year-old Korean man with BD who suffered from polychondritis that manifested as bilateral auricular chondritis, conjunctivitis and arthritis.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2005.20.4.339
PMCID: PMC3891082  PMID: 16491834
Polychondritis; Behçet's disease
3.  Intraabdominal Cryptococcal Lymphadenitis in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(6):1059-1061.
Cryptococcal infection is a rare, yet well recognized complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We present a case of mesenteric and retroperitoneal cryptococcal lymphadenitis resulting in the obstruction of the stomach and proximal duodenum in a patient suffering from SLE, while recently she did not receive any immunosuppressive treatment. A 42-yr-old woman was admitted due to high fever and diffuse abdominal pain for three weeks. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed multiple conglomerated lymphadenopathies in the retroperitoneum and the mesentery resulting in luminal narrowing of the third portion of the duodenum. Cryptococcal lymphadenitis was proven by needle biopsy and she was treated with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B, followed by oral fluconazole. After fourteen-month antifungal therapies, the clinical symptoms and follow-up images improved. This case emphasize that the intrinsic immunological defects of SLE may be directly responsible for the predisposition to fungal infections.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2005.20.6.1059
PMCID: PMC2779309  PMID: 16361822
Mesenteric Lymphadenitis; Cryptococcus neoformans; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
4.  Genetic Analysis of Pigmentation in Cordyceps militaris 
Mycobiology  2005;33(3):125-130.
Pigmentation of ascospore-derived isolates from seven different natural specimens of Cordyceps militaris EFCC C-5888, EFCC C-7159, EFCC C-7833, EFCC C-7991, EFCC C-8021, EFCC C-8023 and EFCC C-8179 was observed on the plates of Sabouraud Dextrose agar plus Yeast Extract at 25℃ under continuous illumination (500 lux). Pigmentation of the wild-type isolates of C. militaris was diverse ranging from yellowish white to orange, while white color was believed as a mutant. Inheritance of pigmentation was found to be controlled by both parental isolates when F1 progeny were analyzed. Pigmentation and mating type were shown to be either independent or distantly linked each other due to the high percentage of non-parental phenotypes among F1 progeny. Crosses between white mutant isolates of C. militaris yielded progeny with wild type pigmentations, indicating that the albino mutations in the parents were unlinked to each other.
doi:10.4489/MYCO.2005.33.3.125
PMCID: PMC3774871  PMID: 24049487
Ascospore progenies; Complementary effects; Linkage; Pigmentation
5.  Determination of Urinary Myo-/Chiro-Inositol Ratios from Korean Diabetes Patients 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2005;46(4):532-538.
Of two major forms (myo- and chiro-inositol) of inositols, only chiro-inositol enhances the activity of proteins involved in intracellular glucose metabolism. This study aims to determine the urinary myo-/chiro-inositol ratio in type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients and compare its ratio with the normal control group. The 24-hour urinary myo- and chiro-inositols in 71 Korean diabetes patients and 39 control subjects have been quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography, and their ratios have been evaluated as indices of insulin resistance. The level of 24-hour urinary myo-inositol was significantly higher in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes than with the control group, whereas the urinary chiro-inositol in type 1 or type 2 diabetes was lower than that in normal subjects. The myo-/chiro-inositol ratio in diabetes patients was higher than that in the control group. Twenty four-hour urinary myo-/chiro-inositol ratios were significantly elevated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients compared to the control group, suggesting that a high ratio of urinary myo-/chiro-inositol in type 2 diabetes patients might be used for an index of insulin resistance.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2005.46.4.532
PMCID: PMC2815839  PMID: 16127779
Myo-inositol; chiro-inositol; inositol; insulin resistance; diabetes mellitus
6.  DNA Hypermethylation of Tumor-Related Genes in Gastric Carcinoma 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(2):236-241.
The hypermethylation of the CpG islands is a common mechanism for the inactivation of tumor-related genes. In the present study, we analyzed the methylation status of genes for cell repair such as hMLH1, MGMT, and GSTP1, and a gastric cancer-specifically methylated DNA fragment, MINT 25 in gastric cancer cases and control groups. The study population consisted of 100 gastric cancer patients (50 distal and 50 proximal carcinomas), and 238 healthy controls. All genes showed more frequent hypermethylation in the cases than in the control group (p<0.0001). We investigated the association between promoter hypermethylation and relevant parameters including age, gender, alcohol consumption, smoking, and family history. There was a common hypermethylation of hMLH1 (p=0.008), MGMT (p=0.0001), and GSTP1 (p=0.0003) in females. This study also demonstrates that hypermethylation was strongly associated with non-drinkers (MGMT, p=0.046 and MINT 25, p=0.049) and non-smokers (hMLH1, p=0.044; MGMT, p=0.0003; MINT 25, p=0.029). Moreover, the frequency of MINT 25 hypermethylation increased with age (p=0.037), and MGMT methylation was frequently detected in distal gastric cancer than in proximal type (p=0.038). Our study suggested that promoter hypermethylation of the genes involved in cell repair system and MINT 25 is associated strongly with some subgroups of primary gastric carcinoma.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2005.20.2.236
PMCID: PMC2808599  PMID: 15831994
Stomach Neoplasms; DNA Methylation; MLH1 Protein, mammalian; O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; Glutathione S-transferase pi; MINT 25
7.  The Korea Brassica Genome Project: a Glimpse of the Brassica Genome Based on Comparative Genome Analysis With Arabidopsis  
A complete genome sequence provides unlimited information in the sequenced organism as well as in related taxa. According to the guidance of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project (MBGP), the Korea Brassica Genome Project (KBGP) is sequencing chromosome 1 (cytogenetically oriented chromosome #1) of Brassica rapa. We have selected 48 seed BACs on chromosome 1 using EST genetic markers and FISH analyses. Among them, 30 BAC clones have been sequenced and 18 are on the way. Comparative genome analyses of the EST sequences and sequenced BAC clones from Brassica chromosome 1 revealed their homeologous partner regions on the Arabidopsis genome and a syntenic comparative map between Brassica chromosome 1 and Arabidopsis chromosomes. In silico chromosome walking and clone validation have been successfully applied to extending sequence contigs based on the comparative map and BAC end sequences. In addition, we have defined the (peri)centromeric heterochromatin blocks with centromeric tandem repeats, rDNA and centromeric retrotransposons. In-depth sequence analyses of five homeologous BAC clones and an Arabidopsis chromosomal region reveal overall co-linearity, with 82% sequence similarity. The data indicate that the Brassica genome has undergone triplication and subsequent gene losses after the divergence of Arabidopsis and Brassica. Based on in-depth comparative genome analyses, we propose a comparative genomics approach for conquering the Brassica genome. In 2005 we intend to construct an integrated physical map, including sequence information from 500 BAC clones and integration of fingerprinting data and end sequence data of more than 100 000 BAC clones. The sequences have been submitted to GenBank with accession numbers: 10 204 BAC ends of the KBrH library (CW978640–CW988843); KBrH138P04, AC155338; KBrH117N09, AC155337; KBrH097M21, AC155348; KBrH093K03, AC155347; KBrH081N08, AC155346; KBrH080L24, AC155345; KBrH077A05, AC155343; KBrH020D15, AC155340; KBrH015H17, AC155339; KBrH001H24, AC155335; KBrH080A08, AC155344; KBrH004D11, AC155341; KBrH117M18, AC146875; KBrH052O08, AC155342.
doi:10.1002/cfg.465
PMCID: PMC2447515  PMID: 18629219
8.  Prognostic Significance of Immunohistochemical Expression of p53 and Retinoblastoma Gene Protein (pRB) in Curatively Resected Gastric Cancer 
Background
The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of the expression of p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) gene products in cases of curatively resected gastric adenocarcinoma, by immunohistochemical analysis.
Methods
Between January 1996 and December 2001, 736 curatively resected gastric cancer patients underwent immunohistochemical staining for p53 or Rb proteins (pRb), and we retrospectively analyzed the correlation of our results with the clinical outcomes of these cases.
Results
High levels of expression of p53 (>25% p53-positive cells) and Rb (>50% Rb-positive cells) proteins were detected in 40.1% and 43.7% of cases, respectively. Tubular type was found to frequently exhibit higher levels of p53 expression (high expression in 44.2%) than signet ring cell type (high expression in 26.0%) (p=0.042). The incidence of vascular invasion was lower in the high pRb expressors (43.2%) than in the pRb low expressors (56.8%), but this was not a statistically significant discrepancy (p=0.063). Preoperative CEA levels were found to be low in high pRb expressors: initial CEA level in the high pRb expressors was 2.31±3.30 ng/mL, and was 5.18±24.80 ng/mL in the low pRb expressors (p=0.033). Tumor depth and node metastasis were both independent of the levels of expression of p53 and Rb proteins. The seven-year overall survival rate and relapse-free survival rates of patients were 87.2% and 75.7%, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that tumor stage, tumor size, patient age and pRb expression were the significant prognostic factors with regard to overall survival, and tumor stage and age were both significant factors with regard to relapse-free survival.
Conclusion
Immunohistochemical staining of retinoblastoma gene products was an independent prognostic factor for the prediction of overall survival in curatively resected gastric cancer patients.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2005.20.1.1
PMCID: PMC3891404  PMID: 15906946
Gastric cancer; Prognosis; p53; Rb gene; Immunohistochemistry

Results 1-8 (8)