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1.  The Effects of Resistance Training on Muscle and Body Fat Mass and Muscle Strength in Type 2 Diabetic Women 
Korean Diabetes Journal  2010;34(2):101-110.
Background
Our goal was to investigate the effects of low intensity resistance training on body fat, muscle mass and strength, cardiovascular fitness, and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes.
Methods
Twenty-eight overweight women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a resistance training group (RG, n = 13) or a control group (CG, n = 15). RG performed resistance training using elastic bands, of which strength was equal to 40 to 50% of one repetition maximum (1RM), for three days per week. Each exercise consisted of three sets for 60 minutes. We assessed abdominal fat using computed tomography, muscle mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and muscle strength using Keiser's chest and leg press. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the insulin tolerance test, and aerobic capacity was expressed as oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold (AT-VO2) before and after the 12-week exercise program.
Results
The age of participants was 56.4 ± 7.1 years, duration of diabetes was 5.9 ± 5.5 years, and BMI was 27.4 ± 2.5 kg/m2, without significant differences between two groups. During intervention, a greater increase in muscle mass and greater decreases in both total fat mass and abdominal fat were observed in RG compared to those of CG (P = 0.015, P = 0.011, P = 0.010, respectively). Increase in 1RM of upper and lower extremities was observed in the RG (P = 0.004, P = 0.040, respectively), without changes in AT-VO2 and insulin resistance in either group.
Conclusion
In conclusion, the low intensity resistance training was effective in increasing muscle mass and strength and reducing total fat mass without change of insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients.
doi:10.4093/kdj.2010.34.2.101
PMCID: PMC2883348  PMID: 20548842
Abdominal fat; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Muscle strength; Resistance training
2.  Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Abdominal Fat, Thigh Muscle Mass and Muscle Strength in Type 2 Diabetic Subject 
Korean Diabetes Journal  2010;34(1):23-31.
Background
Aerobic exercise can effectively reduce visceral fat. However, few studies have examined the effect of daily physical activity on obesity and cardiopulmonary function in the subjects with diabetes. We examined the effect of moderate intensity of walking in obese diabetes patients by monitoring of daily activity and measuring the change in abdominal fat area, muscle are and maximal muscle strength.
Methods
We randomly assigned 27 obese women with type 2 diabetes to an aerobic exercise group (AG, n = 13) and control group (CG, n = 14). The AG performed moderate intensity walking for 60 minutes per exercise, 5 times per week, and for 12 weeks. The activity energy expenditure was monitored by a multi-record accelerometer. The CG maintained routine daily activities. At the time of the initiation of the study and after 12 weeks of exercise, the aerobic exercise capacity was assessed using oxygen consumption rate at anaerobic threshold (VO2-AT). The abdominal fat area and the quadriceps muscle area were measured by computed tomography, and the maximum muscle strength of the upper and lower limbs was measured by a chest press and a leg press, respectively.
Results
The mean age of the study subjects was 56.6 ± 8.0 years, the mean duration of diabetes was 6.3 ± 6.0 years, and the body weight index (BMI) was 27.3 ± 2.7 kg/m2. The BMI of the AG was significantly decreased (P = 0.003). In the AG, the visceral fat area and subcutaneous fat area were also significantly decreased (P = 0.018 and P < 0.001, respectively) but not in CG. VO2-AT of the AG was significantly improved, while that of the CG did not change (P = 0.009 and P = 0.115, respectively). The quadriceps muscle mass and the maximal muscle strength of the AG did not change, however, the CG showed a significant decrease. Duration of moderate intensity exercise was correlated with the decrease in total abdominal fat area (r = -0.484; P = 0.011) and that of high intensity exercise was correlated with improvement of cardiopulmonary function (r = 0.414; P = 0.032).
Conclusion
Daily moderate intensity aerobic exercise is effective at reducing abdominal fat mass, while high intensity exercise improves cardiopulmonary function.
doi:10.4093/kdj.2010.34.1.23
PMCID: PMC2879901  PMID: 20532017
Abdominal fat; Exercise; Muscle strength; Diabetes mellitus, type 2

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