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1.  Is Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Safe in Patients 90 Years of Age and Older? 
Gut and Liver  2014;8(5):552-556.
Background/Aims
This case-control study evaluated the safety and efficacy of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients 90 years of age and older.
Methods
From January 2005 to August 2011, 5,070 cases of ERCP were performed at our institution. Of these, 43 cases involved patients 90 years of age and older (mean age, 91.7±1.9 years). A control group of 129 cases (mean age, 65.7±14.8 years) was matched by the patient sex, sphincterotomy, and presence of choledocholithiasis using a propensity score. The patients’ medical records were retrospectively reviewed for comorbidity, periampullary diverticulum, urgent procedure, conscious sedation, technical success, procedure duration, ERCP-related complication, and death.
Results
Between the case and control groups, there was no significant difference with regard to comorbidity, periampullary diverticulum, and urgent procedure. Conscious sedation was performed significantly less in the patient group versus the control group (28 [65%] vs 119 [92%], respectively; p=0.000). There was no significant difference in the technical success, procedure duration, or ERCP-related complications. In both groups, there was no major bleeding or perforation related to ERCP. Post-ERCP pancreatitis occurred significantly less in the patient group compared to the control group (0 vs 13 [10%], respectively; p=0.004). One death occurred from respiratory arrest in the case group.
Conclusions
ERCP can be performed safely and successfully in patients aged 90 years and older without any significant increase in complications.
doi:10.5009/gnl13310
PMCID: PMC4164253  PMID: 25228977
Cholangiopancreatography; endoscopic retrograde; Safety; Aged; 90 and over
2.  Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Aspirates Using a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Test 
Gut and Liver  2012;7(1):30-34.
Background/Aims
The objective of this study was to evaluate a monoclonal antibody-based test to detect Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen in gastric aspirates from humans.
Methods
Sixty-one volunteers were enrolled in the study. All of the subjects underwent a 13C-urea breath test (UBT) before esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Gastric aspirates were analyzed for pH and ammonia and used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), culture, and monoclonal antibody-based detection of H. pylori. Multiple biopsies of the gastric antrum and body were obtained for a rapid urease test (RUT) and histological evaluation.
Results
Thirty-six subjects were H. pylori-positive and 25 were H. pylori-negative according to the UBT results. Compared with the H. pylori-negative subjects, H. pylori-positive subjects had a higher pH (4.77±1.77 vs 3.49±1.30, p<0.05) and ammonia level (1,130.9±767.4 vs 184.2±126.3, p<0.0001). The sensitivities and specificities of the PCR test, RUT, culture test, and monoclonal antibody-based test were 100% and 72%, 89% and 100%, 47% and 100%, and 78% and 100%, respectively.
Conclusions
The monoclonal antibody-based test for diagnosing H. pylori infection in gastric aspirates has increased sensitivity compared with the culture test and specificity as high as that of the RUT. The test may be useful as an additive test for examining gastric aspirates.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2013.7.1.30
PMCID: PMC3572317  PMID: 23423538
Helicobacter pylori; Gastric aspirate; Monoclonal antibody-based test
3.  Regression of Advanced Gastric MALT Lymphoma after the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori 
Gut and Liver  2012;6(2):270-274.
A 66-year-old female presented with a 1-month history of dyspepsia. An initial upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy revealed a low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. A rapid urease test was positive for Helicobacter pylori. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and computed tomography (CT) revealed a 30×15-mm lymph node (LN) in the subcarinal area. Histopathologic and phenotypic analyses of the biopsy specimens obtained by EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration revealed a MALT lymphoma, and the patient was diagnosed with a stage 4E gastric MALT lymphoma. One year after H. pylori eradication, the lesion had disappeared, as demonstrated by endoscopy with biopsy, CT, fusion whole-body positron emission tomography, and EUS. Here, we describe a patient with gastric MALT lymphoma that metastasized to the mediastinal LN and regressed following H. pylori eradication.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2012.6.2.270
PMCID: PMC3343168  PMID: 22570759
Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma; Stomach
4.  The Significance of p53 and K-ras Immunocytochemical Staining in the Diagnosis of Malignant Biliary Obstruction by Brush Cytology during ERCP 
Gut and Liver  2010;4(2):219-225.
Background/Aims
Brush cytology during ERCP can provide a pathologic diagnosis in malignant biliary obstruction. K-ras and p53 mutations are commonly found in biliary and pancreatic cancers. We evaluated the diagnostic yield of brush cytology and the changes obtained by adding p53 and K-ras staining.
Methods
One hundred and forty patients with biliary obstruction who underwent ERCP with brush cytology during a 7-year period were included. The sensitivity and specificity of brush cytology only and with the addition of p53 and K-ras staining were obtained.
Results
Malignant biliary obstruction was confirmed in 119 patients. The sensitivity and specificity of brush cytology were 78.2% and 90.5%, respectively. The sensitivity of cytology was 77.3% at the ampulla-distal common bile duct (CBD), 92.6% at the mid common hepatic duct (CHD), and 94.7% at the proximal CBD-CHD (p<0.05); these values did not differ with the degree or the length of the obstruction. In the 97 patients who received additional p53 and K-ras staining, the sensitivity of cytology plus p53 was 88.2%, cytology plus K-ras was 84.0%, and cytology plus p53 and K-ras was 88.2%. The sensitivity of cytology plus p53 was higher than that of brush cytology only (95% confidence interval: 83.69-92.78 vs 72.65-83.65) but not that of cytology plus K-ras.
Conclusions
Brush cytology for malignant biliary obstruction has a high diagnostic accuracy. Adding p53 staining can further improve the diagnostic yield, whereas K-ras staining does not.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2010.4.2.219
PMCID: PMC2886932  PMID: 20559525
Malignant biliary obstruction; Brush cytology; ERCP; Immunocytochemical stain

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