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1.  Polyuria with the Concurrent manifestation of Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) & Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) 
We report a rare case of the concurrent manifestation of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A 56 year-old man was diagnosed as a type 2 DM on the basis of hyperglycemia with polyuria and polydipsia at a local clinic two months ago and started an oral hypoglycemic medication, but resulted in no symptomatic improvement at all. Upon admission to the university hospital, the patient's initial fasting blood sugar level was 140 mg/dL, and he showed polydipsic and polyuric conditions more than 8 L urine/day. Despite the hyperglycemia controlled with metformin and diet, his symptoms persisted. Further investigations including water deprivation test confirmed the coexisting CDI of unknown origin, and the patient's symptoms including an intense thirst were markedly improved by desmopressin nasal spray (10 µg/day). The possibility of a common origin of CDI and type 2 DM is raised in a review of the few relevant adult cases in the literature.
doi:10.5049/EBP.2012.10.1.26
PMCID: PMC3597915  PMID: 23508726
Polyuria; Central diabetes insipidus; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Water deprivation test
2.  V2 Receptor Antagonist; Tolvaptan 
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients. Many studies documented that it was related to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and neurologic diseases. Although knowledge of hyponatremia has been cumulated, the optimal management of hyponatremia remains incompletely established in clinical practice because of the diversity of underlying disease states, and its multiple causes with differing pathophysiologic mechanisms. Since vasopressin receptor antagonists have unique aquaretic effect to selectively increase electrolytes-free water excretion, clinicians could apply a more effective method to treat hyponatremia. Tolvaptan has significant evidence that it improves serum sodium levels in patients with euvolemic or hypervolemic hyponatremia related with heart failure, cirrhosis or syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone. Tolvaptan has acceptable safety and tolerability for long-term usage in chronic hyponatremia, and the beneficial effects on serum Na+ occurred in patients with both mild and marked hyponatremia.
doi:10.5049/EBP.2011.9.2.50
PMCID: PMC3302906  PMID: 22438856
tolvaptan; hyponatremia; arginine vasopressin receptors
3.  Is There a Relationship between Hyperkalemia and Propofol? 
This is a case of a sudden cardio-pulmonary arrest in a 29 year-old female, which occurred immediately after a large bolus infusion of propofol (100 mg) intravenously during dilatation and curettage. The arrest suddenly occurred, and the patient was eventually transferred to our emergency room (ER) on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. At that time, severe hyperkalemia up to 9.1 mEq/L and ventricular fibrillation were noted. Resuscitation in ER worked successfully with conversion of electrocardiograph to sinus rhythm, but this patient expired unfortunately. On view of this acute event immediately after the bolus injection of propofol accompanied without other identified causes, severe hyperkalemia induced by propofol was strongly assumed to be the cause of death. To our understanding with the literature survey, propofol as a cause of hyperkalemia has not been well described yet. Through this case, the relationship as a cause and an effect between propofol and hyperkalemia is suggested.
doi:10.5049/EBP.2011.9.1.27
PMCID: PMC3186894  PMID: 21998604
propofol; hyperkalemia; heart arrest; propofol infusion syndrome
4.  Icodextrin Improves the Serum Potassium Profile with the Enhancement of Nutritional Status in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patients 
The impact of glucose-free icodextrin (ID) for overnight dwell as compared to conventional glucose-containing dialysate (GD) on potassium (K+) metabolism in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients has not yet been investigated. Serum K+ in a total of 255 stable patients (116 on GD and 139 on ID) on CAPD for more than 6 months and in 139 patients on ID before and after ID use (Pre-ID and Post-ID) were observed along with nutritional markers in a 2-year study period (Jan. 2006 to Dec. 2007). The prevalence of hypokalemia was similar between patients on GD and ID (16.7% vs 17.3%), but was lower on Post-ID than Pre-ID (17.3% vs 20.5%) without statistic significance. The mean serum K+ level was higher on ID than on GD (P<0.05) as well as Post-ID than Pre-ID (P<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, serum K+ levels were positively correlated with serum albumin, and creatinine in all patients (P<0.05), and ID-use in younger patients (age≤56, P<0.001). Serum albumin, creatinine, total CO2, and body mass index were significantly higher on Post-ID than Pre-ID. Icodextrin dialysate for chronic overnight dwell could increase serum K+ levels and lower the prevalence of hypokalemia compared to conventional glucose-containing dialysate. The improved chronic K+ balance in CAPD patients on icodextrin could be related to enhanced nutritional status rather than its impact on acute intracellular K+ redistribution.
doi:10.5049/EBP.2009.7.2.79
PMCID: PMC3041488  PMID: 21468190
serum albumin; hypokalemia; icodextrin; nutritional status; peritoneal dialysis
5.  Comparison of Icodextrin and 2.5% Glucose in Potassium Metabolism by Acute K+ load via Dialysate in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patients 
This study aimed to compare the increment in plasma potassium concentration ([K+]) as well as the role of internal K+ balance for its changes following acute K+ supplementation between conventional 2.5% glucose (GD) and non-glucose containing dialysate (icodextrin, ID) in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. A total of 9 stable CAPD patients (5 men and 4 women; age, 56±13 years; 7 type-2 diabetics and 2 non-diabetics) on daily 4 exchanges of 2 L of glucose dialysate underwent the 6-hr dwell on fasting in the morning with 2 L of 2.5% glucose mixed with 20 mEq/L of KCl, and then the same regimen was repeated with icodextrin after 1-wk interval. The degree of intraperitoneal absorption was comparable, 65±2% in GD and 68±2% in ID, respectively (p=NS). However, despite the similar plasma K+ levels at the baseline of both regimens, its increment was significantly less in GD than ID, which was accompanied by more marked increase in the calculated intracellular K+ redistribution (68±3% vs. 52±3%, p<0.05). The basal levels of insulin were similar between the GD and ID groups. However, the change, checked up after 2 hours' dwell, from the basal insulin levels was much lower on ID. ID with a lesser degree of transcelluar K+ shift by the decreased secretion of insulin is more effective than the conventional glucose solution for acute K+ repletion via dialysate during CAPD. Furthermore, these results suggested that the role of insulin for the internal K+ balance was intact even in type-2 diabetic patients on CAPD.
doi:10.5049/EBP.2009.7.1.25
PMCID: PMC3041482  PMID: 21468182
hypokalemia; peritoneal dialysis, continuous ambulatory; potassium supplementation; icodextrin
6.  Clinical Factors Associated with Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis 
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a main parameter for arterial stiffness. In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), PWV is known to be associated with increased mortality. But factors related to the increased PWV in ESRD patients are not well defined. In addition, the carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV) measurement, which traditionally has been used to evaluate arterial stiffness, has low reproducibility. Recently, brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) measurement, which can be performed more easily than cfPWV measurement, has become available as a means of measuring PWV. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical factors associated with increased baPWV in ESRD patients. BaPWV was examined for 65 ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis during the period between the 7th to the 11th of February in 2005 using VP-1000. The clinical factors included age, sex, smoking history, blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index, interdialytic weight gain, duration of dialysis, lipid profile, uric acid, albumin, creatinine, C-reactive protein, calcium, phosphate, intact parathyroid hormone, and hematocrit were analyzed regarding associations (or to determine associations) with baPWV. The median age was 53.8±12.0, 31 males and 34 females. BaPWV was 18.9±5.2 m/s and there was no significant difference between gender (18.1±4.4 m/s vs 19.4±5.9 m/s, p=NS). In multiple regression models, age, predialysis systolic blood pressure, and diabetes were independent variables. In conclusion, age, systolic blood pressure, and diabetes were correlated with baPWV in ESRD patients. Thus baPWV measured by simple, noninvasive methods may become available for screening high risk groups in ESRD patients, although further longitudinal studies are necessary.
doi:10.5049/EBP.2008.6.2.61
PMCID: PMC3894478  PMID: 24459524
atherosclerosis; renal dialysis; blood pressure
7.  Recurrent Symptomatic Hyperglycemia on Maintenance Hemodialysis is not Necessarily Related to Hypertonicity : A Case Report 
On view of the absent or minimal osmotic diuresis in end stage renal disease, hyperglycemia on maintenance hemolysis as compared to nonketotic hyperosmolar status without underlying advanced renal failure has been noted to show a wide clinical spectrum form severe manifestations by hypertonicity to no clinical manifestations at all. We experienced a 60-year-old man with a known history of type 2 diabetes mellitus on maintenance hemodialysis for 2 years, who was admitted 4 times within 1 year with hyperglycemia (>500 mg/dL) accompanied by recurrent nausea and vomiting at each admission. However, the calculated effective osmolality (tonicity) in this case ranged only from 286 to 303 mOsm/kg H2O. During the past 6 months following meticulous education for the importance of compliance to medication, especially prokinetics for diabetic gastroparesis, he developed no further episode of hyperglycemia or nausea and vomiting.
doi:10.5049/EBP.2008.6.1.56
PMCID: PMC3894489  PMID: 24459523
hyperglycemia; hemodialysis; hyperosmolality
8.  Pseudohyperphosphatemia in a Patient with Multiple Myeloma 
Hyperphosphatemia is an unusual manifestation in patients with multiple myeloma without a significantly reduced glomerular filtration rate. Serum phosphate may be falsely elevated when a large amount of paraproteins is present in the serum, because ultraviolet light absorbance is elevated with the phosphomolybdate ultraviolet assay, which is most commonly used for serum phosphate measurement. This pseudohyperphosphatemia can be confirmed by deproteinization of the serum of patients. We report a case of multiple myeloma presenting with spurious hyperphosphatemia revealing pseudohyperphosphatemia by deproteinization of serum using sulfosalicylic acid.
doi:10.5049/EBP.2007.5.2.131
PMCID: PMC3894513  PMID: 24459512
Paraproteinemia; Multiple myeloma; Pseudohyperphosphatemia
9.  Varying Dialysate Bicarbonate Concentrations in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients Affect Post-dialysis Alkalosis but not Pre-dialysis Acidosis 
This study aimed to assess the effects of different dialysate bicarbonate concentrations in correcting acid-base imbalance in 53 stable hemodialysis patients in a university-hemodialysis unit. Three different bicarbonate concentrations were assigned, i.e. 25 mEq/L in 10, 30 mEq/L in 30, and 35 mEq/L in 13 patients. Blood gas analyses from arterial line blood samples before and after dialysis in the mid-week were performed for the determination of pH and serum bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentration. The mean values of predialysis arterial HCO3- were mildly acidotic in all 3 groups, but not significantly different among them, whereas those of post-dialysis arterial HCO3- were alkalotic, especially in the group of 35 mEq/L as compared with the other two groups. The mean blood pH was not significantly different among the 3 groups. As expected, there was a positive correlation between pre-dialysis pH and post-dialysis pH (r=0.45, p=0.001), and pre-dialysis HCO3- and post-dialysis HCO3- (r=0.58, p=0.000), but with a negative correlation between pre-dialysis HCO3- and the increment of intradialytic HCO3- following hemodialysis (r=-0.46, p=0.001). In conclusion, this study shows that the impact of conventional dialysate bicarbonate concentrations ranging from 25 to 35 mEq/L is not quite different on the mild degree of predialysis acidemia, but the degree of postdialysis alkalemia is more prominent in higher bicarbonate concentrations. Base supply by hemodialysis alone does not seem to be the main factor to determine the predialysis acidosis in end-stage renal disease patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis.
doi:10.5049/EBP.2007.5.2.95
PMCID: PMC3894521  PMID: 24459507
Acid-base imbalance; Hemodialysis; Bicarbonate dialysate
10.  Metabolic Acidosis in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients: Clinical Impact and Intervention 
Metabolic acidosis has been considered as one of the reverse epidemiologic factors for the morbidity and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients (MHP). Expectedly, in the recent large scale epidemiologic study (The Dialysis Outcome Practice Pattern Study, DOPPS), a mild to moderate degree of predialysis metabolic acidosis has shown better nutritional status and lower relative risk for mortality and hospitalization in MHP. Similarly, another recent study of the largest sample size of MHP of more than 55,000 revealed the lowest unadjusted mortality with mild to moderate degree of predialysis HCO3 levels (17 to 23 mEq/L). However, it was reversed after case-mix and multivariate adjustment, including the malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome, so that predialysis HCO3 levels of more than 22 mEq/L had a lower death risk. On view of this up-to-date on-going controversy about the optimal acid-base status for MHP, this paper will review the historical and break-through data about the pros and cons of metabolic acidosis published in the clinical human studies of MHP, a special subgroup of chronic kidney disease patients. Based on these results, if possible, we would like to suggest the best practice guideline, particularly, for the optimal predialysis HCO3 level, dialysate HCO3 concentration, and dietary protein intake.
doi:10.5049/EBP.2007.5.1.42
PMCID: PMC3894505  PMID: 24459499
Metabolic acidosis; Hemodialysis
11.  Pathogenesis and Treatment of Dyskalemia in Maintenance Hemodialysis and CAPD 
In end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients regardless of dialysis modes, i.e. maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), potassium (K) homeostasis is regulated primarily via dialysis and extrarenal K regulation in the diverse daily K intake. However, K metabolism has been known to differ greatly between the two main methods of dialysis. Hyperkalemia is a common complication (10-24%) and the most common cause of the death (3-5%) among electrolyte disorders in patients on maintenance HD. On the contrary, hypokalemia (10-36%) is responsible for a rather common complication and independent prognostic factor on CAPD. Although excessive K intake or inadequate dialysis on maintenance HD and poor nutritional K intake on CAPD are accused without doubts upto 50% of ESRD patients as a primary cause of the K-imbalance, i.e. hyperkalemia on HD and hypokalemia on CAPD, other contributory factors including certain medications and unknown causes remain still to be resolved. Accordingly, the effects of medications as another source of K-imbalance on HD with RAS blockades and beta blockers as well as those of conventional and glucose-free dialysates (Icodextrin) for internal K-redistribution on CAPD were evaluated with reviewing the literatures and our data. Furthermore, new developments in the clinical managements of hyperkalemia on HD following the exclusion of pseudohyperkalemia before the initiation of dialysis were suggested, especially, by the comparison of the effects between mono- and dual-therapy with medications for transcellular K shifting in the emergent situation. Also, the intraperitoneal K administration via conventional glucose-containing (2.5%) and glucose-free dialysates (Icodextrin) as a specific route of K-supplementation for hypokalemia on CAPD was examined for its efficiency and the degree of intracellular K shift between these two different types of dialysates.
doi:10.5049/EBP.2006.4.1.47
PMCID: PMC3894544  PMID: 24459485
Hyperkalemia; Hypokalemia; Hemodialysis; Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

Results 1-11 (11)