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1.  Expression of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 in dermatomyositis and polymyositis 
Clinical Rheumatology  2009;29(3):273-279.
The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, TLR9, and their correlations with the expression of cytokines that are associated with activation of CD4+ T cells and inflammation including interferon γ (IFNγ), interleukin 4 (IL4), interleukin 17 (IL17), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) in muscle tissues of patients with dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM). The expressions of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, IFNγ, IL4, IL17, and TNFα were measured by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction in muscle tissues from 14 patients with DM and PM (nine patients with DM, five patients with PM) and three controls. The expressions of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 were also localized with immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, IFNγ, IL4, IL17, and TNFα were significantly high in patients with DM and PM compared with those in the controls, and the expression levels of TLR4 and TLR9 had significant positive correlations with the expressions of IFNγ, IL4, IL17, and TNFα. Immunohistochemistry showed that TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 were expressed by infiltrating cells of perimysium in DM, whereas they were expressed by infiltrating cells of endomysium in PM. These results suggest that the involvement of TLR4 and TLR9 in immunopathogenesis of DM and PM might be connected with activation of CD4+ T cells.
doi:10.1007/s10067-009-1316-7
PMCID: PMC2812423  PMID: 19953283
Dermatomyositis; Polymyositis; Toll-like receptors

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