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1.  Bone Marrow T Cells are Superior to Splenic T Cells to Induce Chimeric Conversion After Non-Myeloablative Bone Marrow Transplantation 
Background/Aims
The bone marrow functions not only as the primary B-lymphocyte-producing organ but also as a secondary lymphoid organ for CD4 and CD8 cell responses and a site of preferential homing and persistence for memory T cells. Bone marrow T (BM-T) cells are distinguished from peripheral blood T cells by surface phenotype, cytokine secretion profile, and immune functions. In this study, we evaluated the alloreactive potential of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) using BM-T cells in mixed chimerism compared to that using spleen T (SP-T) cells.
Methods
Cells were prepared using established procedures. BM-T cells were obtained as a by-product of T-cell depletion in BM grafting and then cryopreserved for subsequent DLI. We performed DLI using BM-T cells in allogeneic mixed chimera mice on post-BMT day 21.
Results
When the same dose of T cells, 5-10×105 (Thy1.2+), fractionated from BM and spleen were administered into mixed chimeras, the BM-T group showed complete chimeric conversion, with self-limited graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and no pathological changes. However, the SP-T group showed persistent mixed chimerism, with pathological signs of GVHD in the liver and intestine.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that DLI using BM-T cells, even in small numbers, is more potent at inducing chimeric conversion in mixed chimerism than DLI using SP-T cells. Further study is needed to determine whether cryopreserved BM-T cells are an effective cell source for DLI to consolidate donor-dominant chimerism in clinical practice without concerns about GVHD.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2009.24.3.252
PMCID: PMC2732786  PMID: 19721863
Chimerism, mixed; Infusion, donor lymphocyte; T-cells, bone marrow
2.  Dysfunctional interferon-α production by peripheral plasmacytoid dendritic cells upon Toll-like receptor-9 stimulation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus 
Background
It is well known that interferon (IFN)-α is important to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, several reports have indicated that the number of IFN-α producing cells are decreased or that their function is defective in patients with SLE. We studied the function of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) under persistent stimulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 via a TLR9 ligand (CpG ODN2216) or SLE serum.
Methods
The concentrations of IFN-α were determined in serum and culture supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from SLE patients and healthy controls after stimulation with CpG ODN2216 or SLE serum. The numbers of circulating pDCs were analyzed by fluoresence-activated cell sorting analysis. pDCs were treated with CpG ODN2216 and SLE serum repeatedly, and levels of produced IFN-α were measured. The expression of IFN-α signature genes and inhibitory molecules of TLR signaling were examined in PBMCs from SLE patients and healthy control individuals.
Results
Although there was no significant difference in serum concentration of IFN-α and number of circulating pDCs between SLE patients and healthy control individuals, the IFN-α producing capacity of PBMCs was significantly reduced in SLE patients. Interestingly, the degree which TLR9 ligand-induced IFN-α production in SLE PBMCs was inversely correlated with the SLE serum-induced production of IFN-α in healthy PMBCs. Because repeated stimulation pDCs with TLR9 ligands showed decreased level of IFN-α production, continuous TLR9 stimulation may lead to decreased production of IFN-α in SLE PBMCs. In addition, PBMCs isolated from SLE patients exhibited higher expression of IFN-α signature genes and inhibitory molecules of TLR signaling, indicating that these cells had already undergone IFN-α stimulation and had become desensitized to TLR signaling.
Conclusion
We suggest that the persistent presence of endogenous IFN-α inducing factors induces TLR tolerance in pDCs of SLE patients, leading to impaired production of IFN-α.
doi:10.1186/ar2382
PMCID: PMC2453773  PMID: 18321389
3.  Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing dendritic cells are involved in the generation of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in Peyer's patches in an orally tolerized, collagen-induced arthritis mouse model 
Introduction
The present study was devised to understand the role of systemic indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the tolerance induction for orally tolerized mice in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We examined whether IDO-expressing dendritic cells (DCs) are involved in the generation of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells during the induction of oral tolerance in a murine CIA model.
Methods
Type II collagen was fed six times to DBA/1 mice beginning 2 weeks before immunization, and the effect on arthritis was assessed. To examine the IDO expression, the DCs of messenger RNA and protein were analyzed by RT-PCR and Flow cytometry. In addition, a proliferative response assay was also carried out to determine the suppressive effects of DCs through IDO. The ability of DCs expressing IDO to induce CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells was examined.
Results
CD11c+ DCs in Peyer's patches from orally tolerized mice expressed a higher level of IDO than DCs from nontolerized CIA mice. IDO-expressing CD11c+ DCs were involved in the suppression of type II collagen-specific T-cell proliferation and in the downregulation of proinflammatory T helper 1 cytokine production. The suppressive effect of IDO-expressing CD11c+ DCs was mediated by Foxp3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.
Conclusion
Our data suggest that tolerogenic CD11c+ DCs are closely linked with the induction of oral tolerance through an IDO-dependent mechanism and that this pathway may provide a new therapeutic modality to treat autoimmune arthritis.
doi:10.1186/ar2361
PMCID: PMC2374459  PMID: 18221522
4.  Induction of IL-10-producing CD4+CD25+ T cells in animal model of collagen-induced arthritis by oral administration of type II collagen 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2004;6(3):R213-R219.
Induction of oral tolerance has long been considered a promising approach to the treatment of chronic autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Oral administration of type II collagen (CII) has been proven to improve signs and symptoms in RA patients without troublesome toxicity. To investigate the mechanism of immune suppression mediated by orally administered antigen, we examined changes in serum IgG subtypes and T-cell proliferative responses to CII, and generation of IL-10-producing CD4+CD25+ T-cell subsets in an animal model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We found that joint inflammation in CIA mice peaked at 5 weeks after primary immunization with CII, which was significantly less in mice tolerized by repeated oral feeding of CII before CIA induction. Mice that had been fed with CII also exhibited increased serum IgG1 and decreased serum IgG2a as compared with nontolerized CIA animals. The T-cell proliferative response to CII was suppressed in lymph nodes of tolerized mice also. Production of IL-10 and of transforming growth factor-β from mononuclear lymphocytes was increased in the tolerized animals, and CD4+ T cells isolated from tolerized mice did not respond with induction of IFN-γ when stimulated in vitro with CII. We also observed greater induction of IL-10-producing CD4+CD25+ subsets among CII-stimulated splenic T cells from tolerized mice. These data suggest that when these IL-10-producing CD4+CD25+ T cells encounter CII antigen in affected joints they become activated to exert an anti-inflammatory effect.
doi:10.1186/ar1169
PMCID: PMC416445  PMID: 15142267
collagen-induced arthritis; IL-10; oral tolerance; type II collagen

Results 1-4 (4)