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1.  Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract–Mediated Regulation of STAT3 Proteins Contributes to Treg Differentiation and Attenuates Inflammation in a Murine Model of Obesity-Associated Arthritis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e78843.
Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is a natural flavonoid that exerts anti-inflammatory properties. Obesity is an inflammatory condition and inflammatory cells and their secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that is characterized by inflammation of joints lined by synovium. Previously, we demonstrated that obesity augmented arthritis severity in collagen induced arthritis (CIA), a murine model of human RA. Here, we investigated whether oral administration of GSPE showed antiobesity and anti-arthritic effects in high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and in obese CIA mice, respectively. The pathophysiologic mechanisms by which GSPE attenuates weight gain and arthritis severity in vivo were also investigated. In DIO mice, GSPE administration significantly inhibited weight gain, reduced fat infiltration in liver and improved serum lipid profiles. The antiobesity effect of GSPE was associated with increased populations of regulatory T (Treg) cells and those of decreased Th17 cells. Decrease of Th17 cells was associated with significant inhibition of their key transcriptional factors, pSTAT3Tyr705 and pSTAT3Ser727. On the contrary, GSPE-induced Treg induction was associated with enhanced pSTAT5 expression. To identify the anti-arthritis effects of GSPE, GSPE was given orally for 7 weeks after type II collagen immunization. GSPE treatment significantly attenuated the development of autoimmune arthritis in obese CIA model. In line with DIO mice, GSPE administration decreased Th17 cells and reciprocally increased Treg cells by regulating STAT proteins in autoimmune arthritis model. The expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitrotyrosine in synovium were significantly inhibited by GSPE treatment. Taken together, GSPE functions as a reciprocal regulator of T cell differentiation – suppression of Th17 cells and induction of Tregs in both DIO and obese CIA mice. GSPE may act as a therapeutic agent to treat immunologic diseases related with enhanced STAT3 activity such as metabolic disorders and autoimmune diseases.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078843
PMCID: PMC3818494  PMID: 24223854
2.  Coenzyme Q10 Ameliorates Pain and Cartilage Degradation in a Rat Model of Osteoarthritis by Regulating Nitric Oxide and Inflammatory Cytokines 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e69362.
Objective
To investigate the effect of CoenzymeQ10 (CoQ10) on pain severity and cartilage degeneration in an experimental model of rat osteoarthritis (OA).
Materials and Methods
OA was induced in rats by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) to the knee. Oral administration of CoQ10 was initiated on day 4 after MIA injection. Pain severity was assessed by measuring secondary tactile allodynia using the von Frey assessment test. The degree of cartilage degradation was determined by measuring cartilage thickness and the amount of proteoglycan. The mankin scoring system was also used. Expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-15, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) were analyzed using immunohistochemistry.
Results
Treatment with CoQ10 demonstrated an antinociceptive effect in the OA animal model. The reduction in secondary tactile allodynia was shown by an increased pain withdrawal latency and pain withdrawal threshold. CoQ10 also attenuated cartilage degeneration in the osteoarthritic joints. MMP-13, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-15, iNOS, nitrotyrosine and RAGE expressions were upregulated in OA joints and significantly reduced with CoQ10 treatment.
Conclusion
CoQ10 exerts a therapeutic effect on OA via pain suppression and cartilage degeneration by inhibiting inflammatory mediators, which play a vital role in OA pathogenesis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069362
PMCID: PMC3718733  PMID: 23894457
3.  Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract ameliorates monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2011;43(10):561-570.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related joint disease that is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage and chronic pain. Oxidative stress is considered one of the pathophysiological factors in the progression of OA. We investigated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), which is an antioxidant, on monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced arthritis of the knee joint of rat, which is an animal model of human OA. GSPE (100 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg) or saline was given orally three times per week for 4 weeks after the MIA injection. Pain was measured using the paw withdrawal latency (PWL), the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and the hind limb weight bearing ability. Joint damage was assessed using histological and microscopic analysis and microcomputerized tomography. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13) and nitrotyrosine were detected using immunohistochemistry. Administration of GSPE to the MIA-treated rats significantly increased the PWL and PWT and this resulted in recovery of hind paw weight distribution (P < 0.05). GSPE reduced the loss of chondrocytes and proteoglycan, the production of MMP13, nitrotyrosine and IL-1β and the formation of osteophytes, and it reduced the number of subchondral bone fractures in the MIA-treated rats. These results indicate that GSPE is antinociceptive and it is protective against joint damage in the MIA-treated rat model of OA. GSPE could open up novel avenues for the treatment of OA.
doi:10.3858/emm.2011.43.10.062
PMCID: PMC3222817  PMID: 21795829
antioxidants; grape seed proanthocyanidins; inflammation; interleukin-1β; osteoarthritis
4.  Pigmented Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Nipple-Areola Complex in an Elderly Woman 
Annals of Dermatology  2011;23(Suppl 2):S201-S204.
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), which frequently occurs in sun-exposed areas of the head and neck region, is the most common cutaneous malignancy. The nipple-areola complex (NAC) is an uncommon site for BCC to develop. BCCs in this region display more aggressive behavior and a greater potential to spread than when found in other anatomical sites. This paper outlines the case of 67-year-old female with a solitary asymptomatic black plaque on the right areola. The lesion was initially recognized as Paget's disease of the nipple by a general surgeon. However, the histopathological features showed a tumor mass of basaloid cells, a peripheral palisading arrangement and scattered pigment granules. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with pigmented BCC of the NAC and was referred to the department of dermatology. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography revealed the absence of distant metastasis. A wide excision was done. The lesion resolved without recurrence or metastasis during 14 months of follow-up.
doi:10.5021/ad.2011.23.S2.S201
PMCID: PMC3229065  PMID: 22148050
Areola; Basal cell carcinoma; Nipple
5.  Label-free shotgun proteomics and metabolite analysis reveal a significant metabolic shift during citrus fruit development 
Journal of Experimental Botany  2011;62(15):5367-5384.
Label-free LC-MS/MS-based shot-gun proteomics was used to quantify the differential protein synthesis and metabolite profiling in order to assess metabolic changes during the development of citrus fruits. Our results suggested the occurrence of a metabolic change during citrus fruit maturation, where the organic acid and amino acid accumulation seen during the early stages of development shifted into sugar synthesis during the later stage of citrus fruit development. The expression of invertases remained unchanged, while an invertase inhibitor was up-regulated towards maturation. The increased expression of sucrose-phosphate synthase and sucrose-6-phosphate phosphatase and the rapid sugar accumulation suggest that sucrose is also being synthesized in citrus juice sac cells during the later stage of fruit development.
doi:10.1093/jxb/err197
PMCID: PMC3223037  PMID: 21841177
Citrus; fruit development; juice sac cells; LC-MS/MS; proteomics
6.  Parry-Romberg Syndrome with En Coup de Sabre 
Annals of Dermatology  2011;23(3):342-347.
Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS) is a relatively rare degenerative disorder that is poorly understood. PRS is characterized by slowly progressing atrophy affecting one side of the face, and is frequently associated with localized scleroderma, especially linear scleroderma, which is known as en coup de sabre. This is a report of the author's experiences with PRS accompanying en coup de sabre, and a review of the ongoing considerable debate associated with these two entities. Case 1 was a 37-year-old woman who had right hemifacial atrophy with unilateral en coup de sabre for seven years. Fat grafting to her atrophic lip had been conducted, and steroid injection had been performed on the indurated plaque of the forehead. Case 2 was a 29-year-old woman who had suffered from right hemifacial atrophy and bilateral en coup de sabre for 18 years. Surgical corrections such as scapular osteocutaneous flap and mandible/maxilla distraction showed unsatisfying results.
doi:10.5021/ad.2011.23.3.342
PMCID: PMC3162264  PMID: 21909205
Encoup de sabre; Hemifacial atrophy; Parry-Romberg syndrome
7.  Multiple Nevus Sebaceous Occurring on the Scalp and on the Contralateral Side of the Face 
Annals of Dermatology  2011;23(3):389-391.
Nevus sebaceous (NS) is a benign neoplasm occurring mainly on the face and scalp. It commonly occurs as a solitary, well-demarcated lesion. This paper presents a case of multiple nevus sebaceous, which presented as multiple lesions occurring on the temporal scalp and on the contralateral side of the chin. Multiple NS have only rarely been reported.
doi:10.5021/ad.2011.23.3.389
PMCID: PMC3162275  PMID: 21909216
Multiple; Nevus sebaceus
8.  Treatment of Cultured Sebocytes with an EGFR Inhibitor Does Not Lead to Significant Upregulation of Inflammatory Biomarkers 
Annals of Dermatology  2011;23(1):12-18.
Background
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are being used to treat malignancies originating from epithelia. Unfortunately, blocking the EGFR pathway leads to various side effects, most frequently acneiform eruptions.
Objective
To probe the mechanism underlying this side effect, we investigated the effect of EGFR inhibitors on cultured sebocytes.
Methods
To examine the effects of an EGFR inhibitor (cetuximab, Erbitux® 10 ng/ml) and the effects of EGFR ligands, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF, 10 ng/ml) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α, 5 ng/ml), on the production of inflammatory cytokines in cultured sebocytes, we used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunocytofluorescence and Western blots. Outcomes included the expression of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and EGFR.
Results
There were no significant differences in the expression of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, PPAR-γ and EGFR between (a) groups treated with an EGFR inhibitor or an EGFR ligand and (b) the control group, except for a significant increase in the expression of IL-1 in the EGF-treated group.
Conclusion
EGFR inhibitors and EGFR ligands do not provoke the expression of inflammatory biomarkers in cultured sebocytes. The role of the sebaceous glands in EGFR inhibitor-induced acneiform eruption should be investigated more thoroughly.
doi:10.5021/ad.2011.23.1.12
PMCID: PMC3119992  PMID: 21738357
Cultured sebocytes; EGFR inhibitor; Inflammatory biomarkers
9.  The Feasibility of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy with a Multidisciplinary Cooperative Team Approach for the Management of Koreans with Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma 
Annals of Dermatology  2010;22(1):26-34.
Background
The regional lymph nodal status is the most powerful independent predictor of survival for patients with clinical N0 primary cutaneous malignant melanoma.
Objective
We wanted to evaluate the feasibility and morbidity of the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) staging using a multidisciplinary team approach, in cooperation with other surgical departments, at a university hospital setting.
Methods
Twenty two patients with cutaneous melanoma and who were treated at Kyungpook National University Hospital were included in this study. They all received SLNB, which was done by the Departments of Dermatology and General Surgery. We evaluated the feasibility and side effects of SLNB.
Results
Pathologically-positive sentinel nodes were found in 7 of the 22 cases (31.8%) and all 7 patients were consequently upstaged. The whole process involved in SLNB was well tolerated by nearly all the patients, with only mild and transient complications being observed.
Conclusion
We suggest that in a Korean setting, utilizing SLNB with a multi-disciplinary team approach is a technically feasible procedure that is able to detect occult nodal metastasis with low morbidity rates in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma.
doi:10.5021/ad.2010.22.1.26
PMCID: PMC2883393  PMID: 20548877
Malignant melanoma; Multidisciplinary approach; Sentinel lymph node; Sentinel lymph node biopsy

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