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1.  Does hypokalemia contribute to acute kidney injury in chronic laxative abuse? 
Prolonged hypokalemia from chronic laxative abuse is recognized as the cause of chronic tubulointerstitial disease, known as “hypokalemic nephropathy,” but it is not clear whether it contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI). A 42-year-old woman with a history of chronic kidney disease as a result of chronic laxative abuse from a purging type of anorexia nervosa (AN-P), developed an anuric AKI requiring hemodialysis and a mild AKI 2 months later. Both episodes of AKI involved severe to moderate hypokalemia (1.2 and 2.7 mmol/L, respectively), volume depletion, and mild rhabdomyolysis. The histologic findings of the first AKI revealed the remnants of acute tubular necrosis with advanced chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis and ischemic glomerular injury. Along with these observations, the intertwined relationship among precipitants of recurrent AKI in AN-P is discussed, and then we postulate a contributory role of hypokalemia involved in the pathophysiology of the renal ischemia-induced AKI.
PMCID: PMC4570648  PMID: 26484031
Acute kidney injury; Anorexia nervosa; Hypokalemia; Hypokalemic nephropathy; Laxative
2.  Electrolyte Imbalances and Nephrocalcinosis in Acute Phosphate Poisoning on Chronic Type 1 Renal Tubular Acidosis due to Sjögren's Syndrome 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(2):336-339.
Although renal calcium crystal deposits (nephrocalcinosis) may occur in acute phosphate poisoning as well as type 1 renal tubular acidosis (RTA), hyperphosphatemic hypocalcemia is common in the former while normocalcemic hypokalemia is typical in the latter. Here, as a unique coexistence of these two seperated clinical entities, we report a 30-yr-old woman presenting with carpal spasm related to hypocalcemia (ionized calcium of 1.90 mM/L) due to acute phosphate poisoning after oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation, which resolved rapidly after calcium gluconate intravenously. Subsequently, type 1 RTA due to Sjögren's syndrome was unveiled by sustained hypokalemia (3.3 to 3.4 mEq/L), persistent alkaline urine pH (> 6.0) despite metabolic acidosis, and medullary nephrocalcinosis. Through this case report, the differential points of nephrocalcinosis and electrolyte imbalances between them are discussed, and focused more on diagnostic tests and managements of type 1 RTA.
PMCID: PMC3565150  PMID: 23400265
Hypocalcemia; Nephrocalcinosis; Sodium Phosphate; Distal RTA; Sjögren's Syndrome
3.  Polyuria with the Concurrent manifestation of Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) & Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) 
We report a rare case of the concurrent manifestation of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A 56 year-old man was diagnosed as a type 2 DM on the basis of hyperglycemia with polyuria and polydipsia at a local clinic two months ago and started an oral hypoglycemic medication, but resulted in no symptomatic improvement at all. Upon admission to the university hospital, the patient's initial fasting blood sugar level was 140 mg/dL, and he showed polydipsic and polyuric conditions more than 8 L urine/day. Despite the hyperglycemia controlled with metformin and diet, his symptoms persisted. Further investigations including water deprivation test confirmed the coexisting CDI of unknown origin, and the patient's symptoms including an intense thirst were markedly improved by desmopressin nasal spray (10 µg/day). The possibility of a common origin of CDI and type 2 DM is raised in a review of the few relevant adult cases in the literature.
PMCID: PMC3597915  PMID: 23508726
Polyuria; Central diabetes insipidus; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Water deprivation test
4.  Unintended Cannulation of the Subclavian Artery in a 65-Year-Old-Female for Temporary Hemodialysis Vascular Access: Management and Prevention 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(10):1265-1268.
Ultrasound-guided cannulation of a large-bore catheter into the internal jugular vein was performed to provide temporary hemodialysis vascular access for uremia in a 65-yr-old woman with acute renal failure and sepsis superimposed on chronic renal failure. Despite the absence of any clinical evidence such as bleeding or hematoma during the procedure, a chest x-ray and computed tomographic angiogram of the neck showed that the catheter had inadvertently been inserted into the subclavian artery. Without immediately removing the catheter and applying manual external compression, the arterial misplacement of the hemodialysis catheter was successfully managed by open surgical repair. The present case suggests that attention needs to be paid to preventing iatrogenic arterial cannulation during central vein catheterization with a large-bore catheter and to the management of its potentially devastating complications, since central vein catheterization is frequently performed by nephrologists as a common clinical procedure to provide temporary hemodialysis vascular access.
PMCID: PMC3468767  PMID: 23091328
Hemodialysis; Complication; Central Venous Catheterization
5.  Is There a Relationship between Hyperkalemia and Propofol? 
This is a case of a sudden cardio-pulmonary arrest in a 29 year-old female, which occurred immediately after a large bolus infusion of propofol (100 mg) intravenously during dilatation and curettage. The arrest suddenly occurred, and the patient was eventually transferred to our emergency room (ER) on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. At that time, severe hyperkalemia up to 9.1 mEq/L and ventricular fibrillation were noted. Resuscitation in ER worked successfully with conversion of electrocardiograph to sinus rhythm, but this patient expired unfortunately. On view of this acute event immediately after the bolus injection of propofol accompanied without other identified causes, severe hyperkalemia induced by propofol was strongly assumed to be the cause of death. To our understanding with the literature survey, propofol as a cause of hyperkalemia has not been well described yet. Through this case, the relationship as a cause and an effect between propofol and hyperkalemia is suggested.
PMCID: PMC3186894  PMID: 21998604
propofol; hyperkalemia; heart arrest; propofol infusion syndrome
6.  Icodextrin Improves the Serum Potassium Profile with the Enhancement of Nutritional Status in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patients 
The impact of glucose-free icodextrin (ID) for overnight dwell as compared to conventional glucose-containing dialysate (GD) on potassium (K+) metabolism in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients has not yet been investigated. Serum K+ in a total of 255 stable patients (116 on GD and 139 on ID) on CAPD for more than 6 months and in 139 patients on ID before and after ID use (Pre-ID and Post-ID) were observed along with nutritional markers in a 2-year study period (Jan. 2006 to Dec. 2007). The prevalence of hypokalemia was similar between patients on GD and ID (16.7% vs 17.3%), but was lower on Post-ID than Pre-ID (17.3% vs 20.5%) without statistic significance. The mean serum K+ level was higher on ID than on GD (P<0.05) as well as Post-ID than Pre-ID (P<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, serum K+ levels were positively correlated with serum albumin, and creatinine in all patients (P<0.05), and ID-use in younger patients (age≤56, P<0.001). Serum albumin, creatinine, total CO2, and body mass index were significantly higher on Post-ID than Pre-ID. Icodextrin dialysate for chronic overnight dwell could increase serum K+ levels and lower the prevalence of hypokalemia compared to conventional glucose-containing dialysate. The improved chronic K+ balance in CAPD patients on icodextrin could be related to enhanced nutritional status rather than its impact on acute intracellular K+ redistribution.
PMCID: PMC3041488  PMID: 21468190
serum albumin; hypokalemia; icodextrin; nutritional status; peritoneal dialysis
7.  Secondary Amyloidosis Associated with Multiple Sclerosis 
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Secondary amyloidosis can occur as a complication of chronic systemic inflammatory and infectious diseases. Until now there has been no report of secondary amyloidosis associated with MS. We report herein a case of renal biopsy-proven secondary amyloidosis in a patient with MS.
Case Report
A 41-year-old woman with MS was hospitalized due to aggravated quadriparesis and edema in both lower extremities. Laboratory findings showed nephrotic-range proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia. A percutaneous renal biopsy procedure was performed, the results of which revealed secondary amyloid-A-type amyloidosis associated with MS.
This is the first report of secondary amyloidosis associated with MS.
PMCID: PMC2760720  PMID: 19826566
multiple sclerosis; secondary amyloidosis; nephrotic syndrome
8.  Comparison of Icodextrin and 2.5% Glucose in Potassium Metabolism by Acute K+ load via Dialysate in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patients 
This study aimed to compare the increment in plasma potassium concentration ([K+]) as well as the role of internal K+ balance for its changes following acute K+ supplementation between conventional 2.5% glucose (GD) and non-glucose containing dialysate (icodextrin, ID) in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. A total of 9 stable CAPD patients (5 men and 4 women; age, 56±13 years; 7 type-2 diabetics and 2 non-diabetics) on daily 4 exchanges of 2 L of glucose dialysate underwent the 6-hr dwell on fasting in the morning with 2 L of 2.5% glucose mixed with 20 mEq/L of KCl, and then the same regimen was repeated with icodextrin after 1-wk interval. The degree of intraperitoneal absorption was comparable, 65±2% in GD and 68±2% in ID, respectively (p=NS). However, despite the similar plasma K+ levels at the baseline of both regimens, its increment was significantly less in GD than ID, which was accompanied by more marked increase in the calculated intracellular K+ redistribution (68±3% vs. 52±3%, p<0.05). The basal levels of insulin were similar between the GD and ID groups. However, the change, checked up after 2 hours' dwell, from the basal insulin levels was much lower on ID. ID with a lesser degree of transcelluar K+ shift by the decreased secretion of insulin is more effective than the conventional glucose solution for acute K+ repletion via dialysate during CAPD. Furthermore, these results suggested that the role of insulin for the internal K+ balance was intact even in type-2 diabetic patients on CAPD.
PMCID: PMC3041482  PMID: 21468182
hypokalemia; peritoneal dialysis, continuous ambulatory; potassium supplementation; icodextrin
9.  Clinical Factors Associated with Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis 
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a main parameter for arterial stiffness. In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), PWV is known to be associated with increased mortality. But factors related to the increased PWV in ESRD patients are not well defined. In addition, the carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV) measurement, which traditionally has been used to evaluate arterial stiffness, has low reproducibility. Recently, brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) measurement, which can be performed more easily than cfPWV measurement, has become available as a means of measuring PWV. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical factors associated with increased baPWV in ESRD patients. BaPWV was examined for 65 ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis during the period between the 7th to the 11th of February in 2005 using VP-1000. The clinical factors included age, sex, smoking history, blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index, interdialytic weight gain, duration of dialysis, lipid profile, uric acid, albumin, creatinine, C-reactive protein, calcium, phosphate, intact parathyroid hormone, and hematocrit were analyzed regarding associations (or to determine associations) with baPWV. The median age was 53.8±12.0, 31 males and 34 females. BaPWV was 18.9±5.2 m/s and there was no significant difference between gender (18.1±4.4 m/s vs 19.4±5.9 m/s, p=NS). In multiple regression models, age, predialysis systolic blood pressure, and diabetes were independent variables. In conclusion, age, systolic blood pressure, and diabetes were correlated with baPWV in ESRD patients. Thus baPWV measured by simple, noninvasive methods may become available for screening high risk groups in ESRD patients, although further longitudinal studies are necessary.
PMCID: PMC3894478  PMID: 24459524
atherosclerosis; renal dialysis; blood pressure
10.  Recurrent Symptomatic Hyperglycemia on Maintenance Hemodialysis is not Necessarily Related to Hypertonicity : A Case Report 
On view of the absent or minimal osmotic diuresis in end stage renal disease, hyperglycemia on maintenance hemolysis as compared to nonketotic hyperosmolar status without underlying advanced renal failure has been noted to show a wide clinical spectrum form severe manifestations by hypertonicity to no clinical manifestations at all. We experienced a 60-year-old man with a known history of type 2 diabetes mellitus on maintenance hemodialysis for 2 years, who was admitted 4 times within 1 year with hyperglycemia (>500 mg/dL) accompanied by recurrent nausea and vomiting at each admission. However, the calculated effective osmolality (tonicity) in this case ranged only from 286 to 303 mOsm/kg H2O. During the past 6 months following meticulous education for the importance of compliance to medication, especially prokinetics for diabetic gastroparesis, he developed no further episode of hyperglycemia or nausea and vomiting.
PMCID: PMC3894489  PMID: 24459523
hyperglycemia; hemodialysis; hyperosmolality
11.  Pseudohyperphosphatemia in a Patient with Multiple Myeloma 
Hyperphosphatemia is an unusual manifestation in patients with multiple myeloma without a significantly reduced glomerular filtration rate. Serum phosphate may be falsely elevated when a large amount of paraproteins is present in the serum, because ultraviolet light absorbance is elevated with the phosphomolybdate ultraviolet assay, which is most commonly used for serum phosphate measurement. This pseudohyperphosphatemia can be confirmed by deproteinization of the serum of patients. We report a case of multiple myeloma presenting with spurious hyperphosphatemia revealing pseudohyperphosphatemia by deproteinization of serum using sulfosalicylic acid.
PMCID: PMC3894513  PMID: 24459512
Paraproteinemia; Multiple myeloma; Pseudohyperphosphatemia
12.  Varying Dialysate Bicarbonate Concentrations in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients Affect Post-dialysis Alkalosis but not Pre-dialysis Acidosis 
This study aimed to assess the effects of different dialysate bicarbonate concentrations in correcting acid-base imbalance in 53 stable hemodialysis patients in a university-hemodialysis unit. Three different bicarbonate concentrations were assigned, i.e. 25 mEq/L in 10, 30 mEq/L in 30, and 35 mEq/L in 13 patients. Blood gas analyses from arterial line blood samples before and after dialysis in the mid-week were performed for the determination of pH and serum bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentration. The mean values of predialysis arterial HCO3- were mildly acidotic in all 3 groups, but not significantly different among them, whereas those of post-dialysis arterial HCO3- were alkalotic, especially in the group of 35 mEq/L as compared with the other two groups. The mean blood pH was not significantly different among the 3 groups. As expected, there was a positive correlation between pre-dialysis pH and post-dialysis pH (r=0.45, p=0.001), and pre-dialysis HCO3- and post-dialysis HCO3- (r=0.58, p=0.000), but with a negative correlation between pre-dialysis HCO3- and the increment of intradialytic HCO3- following hemodialysis (r=-0.46, p=0.001). In conclusion, this study shows that the impact of conventional dialysate bicarbonate concentrations ranging from 25 to 35 mEq/L is not quite different on the mild degree of predialysis acidemia, but the degree of postdialysis alkalemia is more prominent in higher bicarbonate concentrations. Base supply by hemodialysis alone does not seem to be the main factor to determine the predialysis acidosis in end-stage renal disease patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis.
PMCID: PMC3894521  PMID: 24459507
Acid-base imbalance; Hemodialysis; Bicarbonate dialysate
13.  Metabolic Acidosis in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients: Clinical Impact and Intervention 
Metabolic acidosis has been considered as one of the reverse epidemiologic factors for the morbidity and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients (MHP). Expectedly, in the recent large scale epidemiologic study (The Dialysis Outcome Practice Pattern Study, DOPPS), a mild to moderate degree of predialysis metabolic acidosis has shown better nutritional status and lower relative risk for mortality and hospitalization in MHP. Similarly, another recent study of the largest sample size of MHP of more than 55,000 revealed the lowest unadjusted mortality with mild to moderate degree of predialysis HCO3 levels (17 to 23 mEq/L). However, it was reversed after case-mix and multivariate adjustment, including the malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome, so that predialysis HCO3 levels of more than 22 mEq/L had a lower death risk. On view of this up-to-date on-going controversy about the optimal acid-base status for MHP, this paper will review the historical and break-through data about the pros and cons of metabolic acidosis published in the clinical human studies of MHP, a special subgroup of chronic kidney disease patients. Based on these results, if possible, we would like to suggest the best practice guideline, particularly, for the optimal predialysis HCO3 level, dialysate HCO3 concentration, and dietary protein intake.
PMCID: PMC3894505  PMID: 24459499
Metabolic acidosis; Hemodialysis
14.  Epstein-Barr virus-associated Hodgkin's disease following renal transplantation 
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) have been recognized as a complication of immunosuppression and occur with a reported incidence of 1 to 8% of recipients receiving solid organ transplantation. PTLD are classified into two major categories, polymorphic and monomorphic PTLD. The majority of the monomorphic PTLD cases are non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell origin. Hodgkin's disease is not part of the typical spectrum of PTLD; however, it has been rarely reported. We describe a case of Hodgkin's disease following renal transplantation. A 41-year-old man developed right cervical lymphadenopathy following renal transplantation 116 months previously for chronic renal failure of unknown origin. He had been taking cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. A lymph node biopsy revealed mixed cellularity Hodgkin's disease. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CD30 and EBV-latent membrane protein-1. No other site of disease was identified. The immunosuppressive agents were reduced (mycophenolate mofetil was discontinued, cyclosporine dose reduced from 200 mg to 150 mg and prednisone continued at 5 mg). After 2 cycles of ABVD followed by radiation therapy (3600 cGy), he achieved complete remission.
PMCID: PMC3891064  PMID: 16646565
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder; Hodgkin's disease; Renal transplantation
15.  Cerebral Infarction as a Complication of Nephrotic Syndrome: A Case Report with a Review of the Literature 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2004;19(2):315-319.
Arterial thrombosis is relatively rare compared with venous thrombosis in nephrotic syndrome. However, the assessment of its pathogenesis and risk factors in individual patient with nephrotic syndrome is necessary to allow appropriate prophylactic management because it is a potentially serious problem. Hereby, with review of the literature, we report a case of a 53 yr-old man with cerebral infarction associated with nephrotic syndrome due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis during the course of treatments with diuretics and steroid. It reveals that the hypercoagulable state in nephrotic syndrome can be associated with cerebral infarction in adults. Prophylactic anticoagulants can be considered to reduce the risk of serious cerebral infarction in nephrotic patients with risk factors such as severe hypoalbuminemia and on diuretics or steroid treatment, even in young patients regardless of types of underlying glomerular diseases.
PMCID: PMC2822321  PMID: 15082913
Nephrotic Syndrome; Cerebral Infarction; Risk Factors; Anticoagulants

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