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1.  Rhythm in joint action: psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms for real-time interpersonal coordination 
Human interaction often requires simultaneous precision and flexibility in the coordination of rhythmic behaviour between individuals engaged in joint activity, for example, playing a musical duet or dancing with a partner. This review article addresses the psychological processes and brain mechanisms that enable such rhythmic interpersonal coordination. First, an overview is given of research on the cognitive-motor processes that enable individuals to represent joint action goals and to anticipate, attend and adapt to other's actions in real time. Second, the neurophysiological mechanisms that underpin rhythmic interpersonal coordination are sought in studies of sensorimotor and cognitive processes that play a role in the representation and integration of self- and other-related actions within and between individuals' brains. Finally, relationships between social–psychological factors and rhythmic interpersonal coordination are considered from two perspectives, one concerning how social-cognitive tendencies (e.g. empathy) affect coordination, and the other concerning how coordination affects interpersonal affiliation, trust and prosocial behaviour. Our review highlights musical ensemble performance as an ecologically valid yet readily controlled domain for investigating rhythm in joint action.
doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0394
PMCID: PMC4240961  PMID: 25385772
rhythm; joint action; interpersonal coordination; musical ensembles; sensorimotor synchronization; social neuroscience
2.  Rational Therapy of Clostridium difficile Infections 
Viszeralmedizin  2014;30(5):304-309.
Summary
Background
Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are increasingly important in patients with antibiotic treatments, ranging from mild, self-limiting to severe, life-threatening disease. Currently, diagnostic algorithms and treatment guidelines are being adapted to novel tests and therapeutic options for recurrent CDI.
Methods
A systematic literature search using the terms ‘Clostridium difficile’ and ‘treatment’ was carried out. Current guidelines are being discussed from a clinical point of view.
Results
State-of-the-art diagnostics for C. difficile diagnosis rely on the patient's history, clinical symptoms, and laboratory examination of stool. Recommendations are in favour of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) screening tests and confirmatory detection of C. difficile toxin genes (polymerase chain reaction (PCR)). Therapeutic strategies depend on disease severity (mild vs. severe) and endorse metronidazole and vancomycin as well as fidaxomycin for recurrent disease. In very severe cases, surgical therapy is recommended. For relapsing diseases, faecal transfer is considered as a therapeutic option if available.
Conclusion
Current guidelines have been adapted to new pathways in diagnosing CDI and have included statements on novel therapeutic options such as fidaxomycin and faecal transplant for recurrent disease. Depending on the severity of the disease, standard therapy with either metronidazole or vancomycin is recommended.
doi:10.1159/000366302
PMCID: PMC4513822  PMID: 26288096
Clostridium difficile; Diagnostics; Guidelines; Therapy
3.  Searching for Roots of Entrainment and Joint Action in Early Musical Interactions 
When people play music and dance together, they engage in forms of musical joint action that are often characterized by a shared sense of rhythmic timing and affective state (i.e., temporal and affective entrainment). In order to understand the origins of musical joint action, we propose a model in which entrainment is linked to dual mechanisms (motor resonance and action simulation), which in turn support musical behavior (imitation and complementary joint action). To illustrate this model, we consider two generic forms of joint musical behavior: chorusing and turn-taking. We explore how these common behaviors can be founded on entrainment capacities established early in human development, specifically during musical interactions between infants and their caregivers. If the roots of entrainment are found in early musical interactions which are practiced from childhood into adulthood, then we propose that the rehearsal of advanced musical ensemble skills can be considered to be a refined, mimetic form of temporal and affective entrainment whose evolution begins in infancy.
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2012.00026
PMCID: PMC3288575  PMID: 22375113
music; joint action; entrainment; ensemble skills; development; dance

Results 1-3 (3)