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1.  Effects of Long-Term Storage on Plasmid Stability in Bacillus anthracis 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2005;71(12):7778-7780.
The plasmid profiles of 619 cultures of Bacillus anthracis which had been isolated and stored between 1954 and 1989 were analyzed using the Laboratory Response Network real-time PCR assay targeting a chromosomal marker and both virulence plasmids (pXO1 and pXO2). The cultures were stored at ambient temperature on tryptic soy agar slants overlaid with mineral oil. When data were stratified by decade, there was a decreasing linear trend in the proportion of strains containing both plasmids with increased storage time (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the proportion of strains containing only pXO1 or strains containing only pXO2 (P = 0.25), but there was a statistical interdependence between the two plasmids (P = 0.004). Loss of viability of B. anthracis cultures stored on agar slants is also discussed.
doi:10.1128/AEM.71.12.7778-7780.2005
PMCID: PMC1317469  PMID: 16332750
2.  Syndromic Surveillance in Bioterrorist Attacks 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2005;11(9):1396-400.
doi:10.3201/eid1109.050981
PMCID: PMC3310639  PMID: 16673516
syndromic surveillance; bioterrorist; anthrax; commentary
3.  Bacillus anthracis Bioterrorism Incident, Kameido, Tokyo, 1993 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2004;10(1):117-120.
In July 1993, a liquid suspension of Bacillus anthracis was aerosolized from the roof of an eight-story building in Kameido, Tokyo, Japan, by the religious group Aum Shinrikyo. During 1999 to 2001, microbiologic tests were conducted on a liquid environmental sample originally collected during the 1993 incident. Nonencapsulated isolates of B. anthracis were cultured from the liquid. Multiple-locus, variable-number tandem repeat analysis found all isolates to be identical to a strain used in Japan to vaccinate animals against anthrax, which was consistent with the Aum Shinrikyo members’ testimony about the strain source. In 1999, a retrospective case-detection survey was conducted to identify potential human anthrax cases associated with the incident, but none were found. The use of an attenuated B. anthracis strain, low spore concentrations, ineffective dispersal, a clogged spray device, and inactivation of the spores by sunlight are all likely contributing factors to the lack of human cases.
doi:10.3201/eid1001.030238
PMCID: PMC3322761  PMID: 15112666
Bacillus anthracis; bioterrorism; anthrax; epidemiology; Aum Shinrikyo; Japan
4.  Epidemiologic Responses to Anthrax Outbreaks: A Review of Field Investigations, 1950–2001 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2002;8(10):1163-1174.
We used unpublished reports, published manuscripts, and communication with investigators to identify and summarize 49 anthrax-related epidemiologic field investigations conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1950 to August 2001. Of 41 investigations in which Bacillus anthracis caused human or animal disease, 24 were in agricultural settings, 11 in textile mills, and 6 in other settings. Among the other investigations, two focused on building decontamination, one was a response to bioterrorism threats, and five involved other causes. Knowledge gained in these investigations helped guide the public health response to the October 2001 intentional release of B. anthracis, especially by addressing the management of anthrax threats, prevention of occupational anthrax, use of antibiotic prophylaxis in exposed persons, use of vaccination, spread of B. anthracis spores in aerosols, clinical diagnostic and laboratory confirmation methods, techniques for environmental sampling of exposed surfaces, and methods for decontaminating buildings.
doi:10.3201/eid0810.020223
PMCID: PMC2730298  PMID: 12396934
anthrax; Bacillus anthracis; bacterial infections; disease outbreaks; public health; bioterrorism; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.); historical article (publication type); zoonoses
5.  Age as a Risk Factor for Cutaneous Human Anthrax: Evidence from Haiti, 1973–1974 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2002;8(8):874-875.
doi:10.3201/eid0808.020207
PMCID: PMC2732527  PMID: 12141982
Bacillus anthracis; cutaneous anthrax; age; Haiti

Results 1-5 (5)