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2.  A computerized Infusion Pump for control of tissue tracer concentration during Positron Emission Tomography in vivo Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic measurements 
Background
A computer controlled infusion pump (UIPump) for regulation of target tissue concentration of radioactive compounds was developed for use in biological research and tracer development for PET.
Methods
Based on observed tissue or plasma kinetics after a bolus injection of the tracer an algorithm calculates the infusion needed to obtain a specified target kinetic curve. A computer feeds this infusion scheme into an infusion pump connected to an animal via a venous catheter. The concept was validated using [11C]Flumazenil administrated to Sprague-Dawley rats where the whole brain distribution and kinetic of the tracer was measured over time using a microPET-scanner. The accuracy and precision of the system was assessed by producing steady-state levels of the tracer and by mimicking kinetics after oral administration.
Results
Various kinetic profiles could be generated, including rapid achievement of constant levels, or step-wise increased levels. The resulting tissue curves had low deviation from the target curves according to the specified criteria: AUC (%): 4.2 ± 2.8, Maximal deviation (%): 13.6 ± 5.0 and R2: 0.95 ± 0.02.
Conclusion
The UIPump-system is suitable for use in PET-research for assessment of PK/PD properties by simulation of different tracer tissue kinetics in vivo.
doi:10.1186/1756-6649-8-2
PMCID: PMC2430701  PMID: 18513382
3.  Application of the multicellular tumour spheroid model to screen PET tracers for analysis of early response of chemotherapy in breast cancer 
Introduction
Positron emission tomography (PET) is suggested for early monitoring of treatment response, assuming that effective anticancer treatment induces metabolic changes that precede morphology alterations and changes in growth. The aim of this study was to introduce multicellular tumour spheroids (MTS) to study the effect of anticancer drugs and suggest an appropriate PET tracer for further studies.
Methods
MTS of the breast cancer cell line MCF7 were exposed to doxorubicin, paclitaxel, docetaxel, tamoxifen or imatinib for 7 days for growth pattern studies and for 3 or 5 days for PET tracer studies. The effect on growth was computed using the semi-automated size determination method (SASDM). The effect on the uptake of PET tracers [18F]3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine (FLT), [1-11C]acetate (ACE), [11C]choline (CHO), [11C]methionine (MET), and 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) was calculated in form of uptake/viable volume of the MTS at the end of the drug exposures, and finally the uptake was related to effects on growth rate.
Results
The drugs paclitaxel, docetaxel and doxorubicin gave severe growth inhibition, which correlated well with inhibition of the FLT uptake. FLT had, compared with ACE, CHO, MET and FDG, higher sensitivity in monitoring the therapy effects.
Conclusion
SASDM provides an effective, user-friendly, time-saving and accurate method to record the growth pattern of the MTS, and also to calculate the effect of the drug on PET tracer uptake. This study demonstrate the use of MTS and SASDM in combination with PET tracers as a promising approach to probe and select PET tracer for treatment monitoring of anticancer drugs and that can hopefully be applied for optimisation in breast cancer treatment.
doi:10.1186/bcr1747
PMCID: PMC2206720  PMID: 17659092
4.  Multicellular Tumour Spheroid as a model for evaluation of [18F]FDG as biomarker for breast cancer treatment monitoring 
Background
In order to explore a pre-clinical method to evaluate if [18F]FDG is valid for monitoring early response, we investigated the uptake of FDG in Multicellular tumour spheroids (MTS) without and with treatment with five routinely used chemotherapy agents in breast cancer.
Methods
The response to each anticancer treatment was evaluated by measurement of the [18F]FDG uptake and viable volume of the MTSs after 2 and 3 days of treatment.
Results
The effect of Paclitaxel and Docetaxel on [18F]FDG uptake per viable volume was more evident in BT474 (up to 55% decrease) than in MCF-7 (up to 25% decrease).
Doxorubicin reduced the [18F]FDG uptake per viable volume more noticeable in MCF-7 (25%) than in BT474 MTSs.
Tamoxifen reduced the [18F]FDG uptake per viable volume only in MCF-7 at the highest dose of 1 μM.
No effect of Imatinib was observed.
Conclusion
MTS was shown to be appropriate to investigate the potential of FDG-PET for early breast cancer treatment monitoring; the treatment effect can be observed before any tumour size changes occur.
The combination of PET radiotracers and image analysis in MTS provides a good model to evaluate the relationship between tumour volume and the uptake of metabolic tracer before and after chemotherapy. This feature could be used for screening and selecting PET-tracers for early assessment of treatment response.
In addition, this new method gives a possibility to assess quickly, and in vitro, a good preclinical profile of existing and newly developed anti-cancer drugs.
doi:10.1186/1475-2867-6-6
PMCID: PMC1459213  PMID: 16556298
5.  A new, fast and semi-automated size determination method (SASDM) for studying multicellular tumor spheroids 
Background
Considering the width and importance of using Multicellular Tumor Spheroids (MTS) in oncology research, size determination of MTSs by an accurate and fast method is essential. In the present study an effective, fast and semi-automated method, SASDM, was developed to determinate the size of MTSs. The method was applied and tested in MTSs of three different cell-lines. Frozen section autoradiography and Hemotoxylin Eosin (H&E) staining was used for further confirmation.
Results
SASDM was shown to be effective, user-friendly, and time efficient, and to be more precise than the traditional methods and it was applicable for MTSs of different cell-lines. Furthermore, the results of image analysis showed high correspondence to the results of autoradiography and staining.
Conclusion
The combination of assessment of metabolic condition and image analysis in MTSs provides a good model to evaluate the effect of various anti-cancer treatments.
doi:10.1186/1475-2867-5-32
PMCID: PMC1315357  PMID: 16283948

Results 1-5 (5)