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1.  Measuring side-effects of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists: a comparison of two methods. 
The prevalence of side-effects of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists among hypertensive patients was assessed by two methods. Using visual analogue scales, scores for tired legs, cold digits and vivid dreaming were significantly higher in patients taking beta-adrenoceptor blockers than in patients not taking beta-adrenoceptor blockers. When measured by numerical scales, from 1 to 10, these symptoms showed no relation to beta-adrenoceptor blocker treatment. The visual analogue scales were more sensitive than the numerical scales because the scores were distributed more evenly over the analogue scales.
PMCID: PMC1463863  PMID: 2862895
2.  Practical applications of a monoclonal antibody (NDOG2) against placental alkaline phosphatase in ovarian cancer. 
A monoclonal antibody (NDOG2) against placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) in ovarian cancer has been used in three ways by the Bristol University Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. First, in an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, NDOG2 demonstrated positive standing in 64% of 56 ovarian carcinomas as well as in 25% of 44 benign tumours. The majority of these positive tumours were serous cystadenocarcinomas or serous cystadenomas and there was considerable variation in the expression of this antigen from tumour to tumour. NDOG2 was also used as the basis of two serum assays and, when labelled with 123-iodine (123I), in radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) to monitor patients' response to therapy. The first serum assay measures the enzymic activity of PLAP and the second recognizes the antigenicity of the molecules. Assay 2 proved more useful in that it predicted the course of the disease in 45% of patients followed up, whereas Assay 1 was only of use in 25% of cases. RIS proved to be a useful imaging technique and was at least as sensitive as conventional imaging techniques. The common causes of false-positive and false-negative results are described.
PMCID: PMC1289996  PMID: 3906119
3.  Timolol and atenolol: relationships between oxidation phenotype, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. 
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of atenolol and timolol were studied in six extensive and four poor metabolisers of debrisoquine. There was a significant correlation between the debrisoquine to 4-hydroxydebrisoquine ratio and the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC) for timolol (rs = 0.75, P less than 0.02). The mean of the AUC values for timolol was significantly greater in the poor metabolisers than in the extensive metabolisers (P less than 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the debrisoquine to 4-hydroxydebrisoquine ratio and beta-adrenoceptor blockade 24 h after dosing with timolol (rs = 0.66, P less than 0.05). The mean degree of beta-adrenoceptor blockade was significantly greater in the poor metabolisers than in the extensive metabolisers 24 h after dosing with timolol (P less than 0.01). There was no relation between the debrisoquine to 4-hydroxydebrisoquine ratio and the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of atenolol.
PMCID: PMC1463731  PMID: 2859048
4.  Reduced microfilament organization in adenovirus type 5-infected rat embryo cells: a function of early region 1a. 
Journal of Virology  1985;55(3):644-650.
The actin microfilament organization in rat embryo cells was examined by fluorescence microscopy with 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-phallacidin and by electron microscopy, after mock infection or infection with adenovirus type 5 (Ad5). Infected cells showed severely reduced numbers of actin microfilaments and stress fibers, detectable early after infection. Mutants defective in Ad5 early genes were used to show that reduced microfilament organization was a function of the Ad5 transformation early gene 1a (E1a) and did not require expression of any other viral gene. The product of the E1a 13s mRNA was essential for the effect, although the 12s mRNA product appeared to contribute. Ad5 infection of the cells had no observable effect on total cell actin levels or on the ratio of monomeric to polymeric actin. E1a, therefore, affected only the higher-order organization of actin.
PMCID: PMC255031  PMID: 2991587
6.  Side-effects of beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs assessed by visual analogue scales. 
A series of visual analogue scales (VAS) was used to examine the prevalence of side-effects among hypertensive patients taking beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs. When compared to untreated non-hypertensive control subjects, patients taking beta-adrenoceptor blockers had a greater prevalence of tired legs (P less than 0.001), cold digits (P less than 0.01), insomnia (P less than 0.01) and loss of overall wellbeing (P less than 0.01). Side-effects did not differ significantly between patients taking atenolol (n = 30), oxprenolol (n = 16), propranolol (n = 15) or metoprolol (n = 10). If there is an important difference in the prevalence of side-effects between different beta-adrenoceptor blockers, a much larger study will be needed to demonstrate it.
PMCID: PMC1463712  PMID: 2859044
7.  Parents' understanding of coeliac disease and diet. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1985;60(7):672-674.
Parents of 50 children with coeliac disease were questioned about their knowledge of the disorder and the child's dietary compliance. Twenty of 50 parents admitted that compliance was less than strict. This correlated with poor knowledge of the disease which in turn was related to the family's social status. Membership of the Coeliac Society (23 of 50) correlated with both parental understanding and dietary compliance. Greater emphasis on dietary compliance and education of parents and patients is required.
PMCID: PMC1777284  PMID: 4026368
8.  Economics of an aging population. 
Throughout this century, as in many other countries, the proportion of the British population in the older age groups has increased. The effect this has on the economy is discussed. Topics covered include the determinants of the economic status of old people; the reasons for the choice of retirement ages; the burden of the aged on younger generations; the costs of pension schemes; the disincentive effects of pensions on savings; and poverty in old age.
PMCID: PMC1052414  PMID: 4009105

Results 1-9 (9)