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1.  Relation between stage, grade, proliferation, and expression of p53 and CD44 in adenomas and carcinomas of the colorectum. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1995;48(12):1098-1101.
AIMS--To investigate the changes in and relations among p53, CD44 and MIB-1 expression in adenocarcinomas of the colorectum and to determine whether these changes are progressive across the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. METHODS--Expression of p53 protein, CD44 adhesion molecule and MIB-1 proliferation antigen was detected using immunohistochemistry in 68 colorectal carcinomas and 32 colorectal adenoma. The staining characteristics were compared with degree of dysplasia in adenomas, and differentiation and Dukes' stage in carcinomas. Results were analysed and assessed using Spearman's rank correlation and independent t tests. RESULTS--p53 staining was present in som adenomas and correlated with the degree of dysplasia. There was significantly more staining in carcinomas than adenomas and significant correlation between staining and Dukes' stage. CD44 staining was maximal in adenomas, diminished in carcinomas and was minimal in metastasising carcinomas. There was inverse correlation between p53 and CD44 expression across the adenoma-carcinoma-metastasising carcinoma sequence. MIB-1 expression was highest in carcinomas but did not correlate with either p53 or CD44 expression. CONCLUSIONS--There are progressive changes in p53, CD44 and MIB-1 expression in adenomas and carcinomas. A combination of these tests may prove useful in assessing which patients with adenomas are at greatest risk of progressing to carcinoma.
PMCID: PMC503034  PMID: 8567994
2.  Lymphocytic gastritis and associated small bowel disease: a diffuse lymphocytic gastroenteropathy? 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1995;48(10):939-945.
AIM--To investigate the natural history of lymphocytic gastritis (LG) and its relation to Helicobacter pylori infection and to coeliac disease using serology, duodenal biopsy and a small intestinal permeability test. METHOD--Twenty two patients diagnosed as having LG between 1984 and 1994 were investigated by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at which gastric and duodenal biopsy specimens were taken for histological assessment and immunohistology. Serum was collected for measurement of anti-H pylori, anti-gliadin and anti-endomysial antibodies. A lactulose/mannitol absorption test was performed within one week of endoscopy. Control groups were studied by histology, serology and permeability tests. RESULTS--Three patients had been recently diagnosed as having LG while 15 still had the condition after a mean of 13.9 (range two to 38) months. LG involved the antrum alone in three patients, antrum and body in seven, body alone in six, and gastric remnant in two. Gastroduodenal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) were T cells and predominantly of T suppressor (CD8) type. Duodenal IELs were increased compared to age/sex matched controls with chronic gastritis. Four patients had duodenal villous atrophy. Four patients no longer had LG after a mean of 29.3 (10-70) months but had increased gastroduodenal IELs. H pylori was present in four (22%) of 18 patients with LG but H pylori serology was positive in 11 (61%) of 18. There was no difference in seropositivity when compared with age/sex matched controls with dyspepsia. Eleven of 20 patients with LG tested had abnormal lactulose/mannitol absorption (v none of 22 controls with chronic gastritis). Four patients with LG, all with villous atrophy, were seropositive for IgA endomysial antibody. CONCLUSIONS--The persistence of LG with time, the association with increased duodenal IELs and abnormal small intestinal permeability suggests LG may be a manifestation of a diffuse lymphocytic gastroenteropathy related to sensitivity to gluten or some other agent.
PMCID: PMC502952  PMID: 8537495
4.  Resolution of ACE inhibitor cough: changes in subjective cough and responses to inhaled capsaicin, intradermal bradykinin and substance-P. 
1. In eight hypertensive patients with ACE inhibitor-induced cough the resolution of the cough was examined in a prospective observational study over 4 weeks duration. Resolution of cough was measured by visual analogue scales and questionnaire at baseline and days 3, 7, 14 and 28. In addition changes in cough sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin, and skin responses to bradykinin and substance-P were measured at the same time points. 2. All patients recorded significant subjective improvement in cough questionnaire scores for severity and night time waking, and by visual analogue scales for severity and frequency of cough (all P < 0.0005 for trend from day 0-28). Significant changes in subjective measures were recorded by 3 to 7 days for most measures, but further reductions were observed up to day 28 (all P < 0.01 day 28 vs day 0). 3. The sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin fell over the 28 days of study after stopping enalapril. The potency of capsaicin relative to day 0 was reduced to 0.25 (95% CI 0.07-0.87) by day 14, and to 0.20 (95% CI 0.06-0.67) by 28 days. 4. After stopping enalapril there was a highly significant reduction in wheal area produced by intradermal bradykinin, with the majority of the effect seen by day 3 (P < 0.0005). The wheal area to intradermal substance-P also declined with time after stopping enalapril, but significant changes were not observed until 14 days (P < 0.01). 5. Multiple regression analysis of the rates of decline for the subjective and objective measures of cough showed significant associations between the response to inhaled capsaicin and the VAS scores for severity of cough (P = 0.005) and frequency of cough (P = 0.011). Capsaicin response was not related significantly to the severity of cough measured by self-administered questionnaire. 6. There was a significant association between bradykinin response and VAS scores for frequency of cough (P < 0.04) and severity of cough (P < 0.05), but not with cough by questionnaire or the capsaicin response. The response to substance-P did not relate significantly to any of the measures of cough. 7. Cough caused by enalapril improved markedly by 14 days but took up to 28 days to resolve. It was associated with increased sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin which decreased over 28 days, and which paralleled changes in subjective cough scores.
PMCID: PMC1365187  PMID: 8703645
5.  Cell cycle regulation of RNA polymerase III transcription. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1995;15(12):6653-6662.
Inactivation of the TATA-binding protein-containing complex TFIIIB contributes to the mitotic repression of RNA polymerase III transcription, both in frogs and in humans (J. M. Gottesfeld, V. J. Wolf, T. Dang, D. J. Forbes, and P. Hartl, Science 263:81-84, 1994; R. J. White, T. M. Gottlieb, C. S. Downes, and S. P. Jackson, Mol. Cell. Biol. 15:1983-1992, 1995). Using extracts of synchronized proliferating HeLa cells, we show that TFIIIB activity remains low during the early part of G1 phase and increases only gradually as cells approach S phase. As a result, the transcription of all class III genes tested is significantly less active in early G1 than it is in S or G2 phase, both in vitro and in vivo. The increased activity of TFIIIB as cells progress through interphase appears to be due to changes in the TATA-binding protein-associated components of this complex. The data suggest that TFIIIB is an important target for the cell cycle regulation of RNA polymerase III transcription during both mitosis and interphase of actively proliferating HeLa cells.
PMCID: PMC230918  PMID: 8524230
6.  Effect of dose adjustment on enalapril-induced cough and the response to inhaled capsaicin. 
1. In nine hypertensive patients with enalapril-induced cough the effect of altering the dose of enalapril on subjective cough and the cough response to inhaled capsaicin was examined in a random single-blind balanced cross-over study. They received three doses of enalapril, each for 3 weeks; the dose at entry (mean 10 mg daily); double this dose (mean 20 mg daily); and half this dose (mean 5 mg daily). 2. The cough response to inhaled capsaicin was also measured in two control groups: hypertensive patients on long-term enalapril treatment with no cough (n = 18), and hypertensive patients taking nifedipine (n = 17). 3. In patients with enalapril-induced cough there were significant dose-responses for enalapril as regards severity of cough (P < 0.05) and night time waking by cough (P < 0.05), but not for frequency of cough. Although the cough was less severe (P < 0.02) and caused less night time waking (P < 0.03) on the lowest dose of enalapril (mean 5 mg daily) it did not disappear completely in any patient. 4. The sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin did not differ significantly on the three doses of enalapril. The relative potency of capsaicin on enalapril 20 mg compared with enalapril 5 mg was 1.0 (95% CI 0.4-2.2). The wide confidence limits indicate that an important dose-dependent shift in capsaicin sensitivity is not excluded. 5. The sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin differed significantly between patients with enalapril-induced cough and both control groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1365003  PMID: 7619668
7.  Relation between changes in blood pressure and serum ACE activity after a single dose of enalapril and ACE genotype in healthy subjects. 
1. The effects of a single oral dose of enalapril 10 mg on serum ACE activity and blood pressure in relation to the ACE genotype were studied in 27 healthy men, n = 9 each of genotype DD, ID and II, in a parallel group study design. 2. Before treatment serum ACE activity differed significantly between the genotypes, with serum ACE activity 56% higher in DD than II subjects, and the genotype explaining 40% of between-subject variance in serum ACE activity. 3. After oral enalapril 10 mg the absolute fall in serum ACE activity was significantly larger in DD than II subjects at 2, 4, and 6 h (by 9.0 (95% CI 0.7-17.2), 10.7 (3.8-17.6), and 9.7 (2.8-16.6) nmol ml-1 min-1 respectively), but not at 24 h (fall in II > DD by 1.1 (-8.9 to 6.7) nmol ml-1 min-1). 4. Serum ACE activity remained significantly related to the ACE genotype at each time-point after enalapril, with the genotype explaining 22-46% of between-subject variance in serum ACE. 5. Falls in mean arterial pressure in response to enalapril were not significantly related to the ACE genotype, with the average fall over 6 h in DD > II genotype by 0.7 mm Hg (95% CI -5.5 to 4.1). 6. Blood pressure responses to enalapril did not correlate significantly with the initial serum ACE, or the absolute or percent reductions in serum ACE activity after enalapril.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1364949  PMID: 7742150
9.  Hospital doctors' work. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1995;310(6985):952-953.
PMCID: PMC2549352  PMID: 7728018
10.  Mitotic regulation of a TATA-binding-protein-containing complex. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1995;15(4):1983-1992.
The mitotic state is associated with a generalized repression of transcription. We show that mitotic repression of RNA polymerase III transcription can be reproduced by using extracts of synchronized HeLa cells. We have used this system to investigate the molecular basis of transcriptional repression during mitosis. We find a specific decrease in the activity of the TATA-binding-protein (TBP)-containing complex TFIIIB. TBP itself is hyperphosphorylated at mitosis, but this does not appear to account for the loss of TFIIIB activity. Instead, one or more TBP-associated components appear to be regulated. The data suggest that changes in the activity of TBP-associated components contribute to the coordinate repression of gene expression that occurs at mitosis.
PMCID: PMC230425  PMID: 7891693
12.  Cell proliferation in the gastric corpus in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis and after gastric resection. 
Gut  1995;36(3):351-353.
Patients who have undergone gastric resection are at higher risk of developing gastric carcinoma than normal subjects, and bile reflux is believed to play a role in carcinogenesis. An increase in mucosal cell proliferation increases the likelihood of a neoplastic clone of epithelial cells emerging, particularly where there is chronic epithelial injury associated with bile reflux. Helicobacter pylori is considered a major risk factor for gastric cancer in the intact stomach. It has been shown previously that antral cell proliferation is increased in H pylori gastritis and falls to normal levels after eradication of the organism. Little is known of corpus cell proliferation in H pylori gastritis or after gastric resection. Using in vitro bromodeoxyuridine labelling of endoscopic biopsy specimens we have found that corpus cell proliferation is increased in H pylori gastritis. Cell proliferation was greater in corpus biopsy specimens of resected stomachs than in H pylori gastritis. Subgroup analysis of patients who had undergone gastric resection indicated that those positive for H pylori had higher levels of cell proliferation than those negative for the organism. These findings provide further evidence that H pylori and bile have a role in gastric carcinogenesis and suggest that their presence has a synergistic effect on gastric epithelial cell proliferation.
PMCID: PMC1382443  PMID: 7698691
13.  Cell proliferation in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis and the effect of eradication therapy. 
Gut  1995;36(3):346-350.
Helicobacter pylori causes chronic (type B) gastritis. The 'intestinal' form of gastric cancer arises against a background of chronic gastritis, and prospective epidemiological studies have shown that H pylori is a major risk factor for this. An increase in mucosal cell proliferation increases the likelihood of a neoplastic clone of epithelial cells emerging where there is chronic epithelial cell injury associated with H pylori gastritis. In vitro bromodeoxyuridine labelling of endoscopic antral biopsy specimens was used to measure mucosal cell proliferation in H pylori associated gastritis before and after therapy for H pylori triple infection. Cell proliferation was increased in H pylori associated gastritis patients compared with normal controls and patients with H pylori negative chronic gastritis (p = 0.0001; Tukey's Studentised range). There was no difference in antral epithelial cell proliferation between duodenal ulcer and non-ulcer subjects infected with H pylori (p = 0.62; Student's t test). Antral mucosal cell proliferation fell four weeks after completing triple therapy, irrespective of whether or not H pylori had been eradicated (p = 0.0001). At retesting six to 18 months later (mean = 12 months), however, those in whom H pylori had not been successfully eradicated showed increased mucosal proliferation compared with both H pylori negative subjects at a similar follow up interval and all cases (whether H pylori positive or negative) four weeks after completion of triple therapy (p = 0.024). These findings suggest that H pylori infection causes increased gastric cell proliferation and in this way may play a part in gastric carcinogenesis.
PMCID: PMC1382442  PMID: 7698690
14.  Cloning and functional analysis of the TATA binding protein from Sulfolobus shibatae. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1995;23(10):1775-1781.
Archaea (formerly archaebacteria) comprise a domain of life that is phylogenetically distinct from both Eucarya and Bacteria. Here we report the cloning of a gene from the Archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae that encodes a protein with strong homology to the TATA binding protein (TBP) of eukaryotes. Sulfolobus shibatae TBP is, however, almost as diverged from other archaeal TBPs that have been cloned as it is from eukaryotic TBPs. DNA binding studies indicate that S.shibatae TBP recognizes TATA-like A-box sequences that are present upstream of most archaeal genes. By quantitatively immunodepleting S.shibatae TBP from an in vitro transcription system, we demonstrate that Sulfolobus RNA polymerase is capable of transcribing the 16S/23S rRNA promoter weakly in the absence of TBP. Most significantly, we show that addition of recombinant S.shibatae TBP to this immunodepleted system leads to transcriptional stimulation and that this stimulation is dependent on the A-box sequence of the promoter. Taken together, these findings reveal fundamental similarities between the transcription machineries of Archaea and eukaryotes.
PMCID: PMC306935  PMID: 7784182

Results 1-14 (14)