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1.  Effective lipid lowering diets including lean meat 
The plasma lipid and lipoprotein responses to two modified isoenergetic diets including meat were studied in 15 free living men with hyperlipidaemia (mean plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations 8·1 and 3·4 mmol/l). A reference diet (diet A, 42% energy from fat, ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids (P:S ratio) 0·2) was compared with a fat reduced diet (diet B, 35% energy from fat, P:S ratio 0·5) and with a further fat modified diet supplemented with fibre (diet C, 27% energy from fat, P:S ratio 1·0). Daily intake of meat and meat products (180 g/day) was the same in each dietary period; that in diet A had a fat content typical of the average British diet, whereas that in diets B and C was based on very lean meat and meat products. During consumption of diet B the plasma cholesterol concentration fell by 8·6% and low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 11%. During consumption of diet C plasma cholesterol fell by 18·5% and low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 23·8%. Triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and body weight did not change appreciably during the study.
A modified diet including a moderate amount of lean meat and meat products is compatible with a reduced lipoprotein mediated risk of atherosclerotic heart disease.
PMCID: PMC2544768  PMID: 3124899
2.  District programme to reduce smoking: effect of clinic supported brief intervention by general practitioners. 
By encouraging and supporting general practitioners to undertake brief intervention on a routine basis smokers' clinics could reach many more smokers than are willing to attend for intensive treatment. In a study with 101 general practitioners from 27 practices 4445 cigarette smokers received brief intervention with the support of a smokers' clinic, brief intervention without such support, or the general practitioners' usual care. At one year follow up the numbers of smokers who reported that they were no longer smoking cigarettes were 51 (13%), 63 (9%), and 263 (8%), respectively (p less than 0.005). After an adjustment was made for those cases not validated by urine cotinine concentrations the respective success rates were 8%, 5%, and 5%. Use of nicotine chewing gum was associated with higher self reported success rates. General practitioners providing supported brief intervention encouraged not only more smokers to use the gum but also more effective use; gum users in this group reported a success rate of 27% at one year. Compliance by the general practitioners in recording smoking state averaged 45%, and significantly higher success rates were reported by patients whose smoking state had been recorded. Brief intervention by general practitioners with the support of a smokers' clinic thus significantly enhanced success rates based on self reports. Better results might be obtained if general practitioners' compliance with the procedure could be improved and if they encouraged more of their patients to try nicotine gum. Collaboration of this kind between a smokers' clinic and local general practitioners could deliver effective help to many more smokers than are likely to be affected if the two continue to work separately.
PMCID: PMC1248311  PMID: 3120963
3.  Mental health of unemployed men in different parts of England and Wales. 
In a study of mental health among unemployed men two contrasting hypotheses about the importance of the local unemployment rate were examined--namely, that very high local unemployment might be associated with either impoverishment or resilience of the community, which would affect health in opposite ways. The mental health of 954 unemployed men registered at 41 unemployment benefit offices in England and Wales was assessed by the general health questionnaire, men in areas of particularly high unemployment being compared with men in areas of moderate and relatively low unemployment. Scores for ill health were significantly lower in areas of particularly high unemployment, even when personal factors known to affect mental health during unemployment were controlled for. These results support the hypothesis that communities with high rates of unemployment develop resilience that is beneficial for the mental health of the unemployed.
PMCID: PMC1247430  PMID: 3117205

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