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1.  INFORMANT-BASED DEMENTIA SCREENING IN A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF AFRICAN AMERICANS 
BACKGROUND
An informant-based screening tool for dementia may be useful in population-based studies of minority populations.
OBJECTIVE
Investigate the feasibility of screening for very mild dementia in a community sample of African Americans using an informant-based screening tool (AD8).
DESIGN
Cohort study
PARTICIPANTS
147 persons from the African American Health (AAH) project were screened for dementia; 61 of 93 who were invited had follow-up clinical assessments for dementia diagnosis.
MEASUREMENTS
The AD8, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Short Blessed Test (SBT), Brief Instrument for Dementia Detection (BIDD), and a neuropsychological battery were administered at visit 1. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) was administered at visit 2 by clinicians blinded to visit 1 results; the presence of dementia was determined by a CDR greater than 0.
RESULTS
465 individuals from the AAH cohort were sent a letter describing the study and, among this group, 252 individuals were contacted by phone to request participation in this study. 6% (14 / 252) of participants contacted by phone were unable to identify an informant (required for the AD8). 150 individuals agreed by phone to participate of which 2% (n=3) did not have an informant available at the time of participation. The AD8 alone was effective at discriminating between CDR 0 and CDR 0.5 (area under the curve = .847; p <.001; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.96).
CONCLUSIONS
A brief informant-based instrument, the AD8, has high sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing CDR 0 from CDR 0.5 in the community. Informant availability may not be a barrier to using the AD8 in an African American community sample; however, further study in larger samples with a higher response rate, different community settings (e.g., community clinics), and among older age groups (e.g., age 75+) is warranted to confirm this.
PMCID: PMC2763355  PMID: 19484913
African Americans; Dementia; Screening
2.  Collision sports. Injury and repair. 
doi:10.1136/bjsm.34.1.74-a
PMCID: PMC1724155
3.  Hospital doctors' work. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1995;310(6985):952-953.
PMCID: PMC2549352  PMID: 7728018
5.  Role of community pharmacies in prevention of AIDS among injecting drug misusers: findings of a survey in England and Wales. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1989;299(6707):1076-1079.
OBJECTIVE--To determine the current and potential roles of community pharmacists in the prevention of AIDS among misusers of injected drugs. DESIGN--Cross sectional postal survey of a one in four random sample of registered pharmacies in England and Wales. SETTING--Project conducted in the addiction research unit of the Institute of Psychiatry, London. SUBJECTS--2469 Community pharmacies in the 15 regional health authorities in England and Wales. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Willingness of pharmacists to sell injecting equipment to known or suspected misusers of drugs; pharmacists' attitudes to syringe exchange schemes, keeping a "sharps" box for use by misusers of drugs, and offering face to face advice and leaflets; and opinions of community pharmacists on their role in AIDS prevention and drug misuse. RESULTS--1946 Questionnaires were returned, representing a response rate of 79%. This fell short of the target of one in four pharmacies in each family practitioner committee area in England and Wales, and total numbers of respondents were therefore weighted in inverse proportion to the response rate in each area. The findings disclosed a substantial demand for injecting equipment by drug misusers. After weighting of numbers of respondents an estimated 676 of 2434 pharmacies were currently selling injecting equipment and 65 of 2415 (3%) were participating in local syringe exchange schemes; only 94 of 2410 pharmacies (4%) had a sharps box for used equipment. There was a high degree of concern among pharmacists about particular consequences of drug misusers visiting their premises, along with a widespread acceptance that the community pharmacist had an important part to play. CONCLUSIONS--Promoting the participation of community pharmacists in the prevention of AIDS among misusers of injected drugs is a viable policy, but several problems would need to be overcome before it was implemented.
PMCID: PMC1837978  PMID: 2511969
7.  Tetanus Immunization 
British Medical Journal  1958;2(5090):249-250.
PMCID: PMC2026090

Results 1-7 (7)