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2.  Necrotising soft tissue infection following mastectomy 
Necrotising fasciitis is a rare but rapidly progressive soft tissue disease which can lead to extensive necrosis, systemic sepsis and death. Including this case, only 7 other cases have been reported in the world literature with only 2 others affecting the patient post mastectomy.
This 59 year old Caucasian lady presented with severe soft tissue infection soon after mastectomy, which was successfully treated with a combination of debridement, triangulation, VAC© dressing and skin grafting.
Necrotising soft tissue infections following mastectomy are rapidly progressive and potentially extremely serious. It is essential that a high index of clinical suspicion is maintained together with prompt aggressive treatment in a multidisciplinary environment to prevent worsening physical and psychological sequelae.
doi:10.1093/jscr/2010.1.4
PMCID: PMC3649077  PMID: 24945507
4.  L-carnitine in cyclical vomiting syndrome 
doi:10.1136/adc.2003.047183
PMCID: PMC1719739  PMID: 15557068
6.  Acute effects of winter air pollution on respiratory function in schoolchildren in southern England 
Aim: To investigate the acute health effects of winter outdoor air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), sulphate (SO42-) ,and particles (PM10)) on schoolchildren in an area of southern England where levels of SO2 had been reported to be high.
Methods: A total of 179 children, aged 7–13, from three schools (two urban and one rural location), were included. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and presence or absence of upper respiratory infections were recorded on 63 school days from 1 November 1996 to 14 February 1997. Air pollution and meteorological data were taken from monitors at each school site. The analysis regressed daily PEFR on pollutant level adjusting for confounders and serial correlation and calculated a weighted pooled estimate of effect overall for each pollutant. In addition, large decrements in PEFR were analysed as a binary outcome. Same day, lag 1, lag 2, and a five day average of pollutant levels were used.
Results: There were no clear effects of any pollutant on mean PEFR. In addition, we analysed large PEFR decrements (a binary outcome), observing consistent negative associations with NO2, SO42-, and PM10, although few lag/pollutant combinations were significant: odds ratios (95% CI) for five day average effect: NO2 24 h average 1.043 (1.000 to 1.089), SO42- 1.090 (0.898 to 1.322), PM10 1.037 (0.992 to 1.084). The observed effects of PM10 (only) were stronger in wheezy children (1.114 (1.057 to 1.174)). There were no consistent negative associations between large decrements and ozone or SO2 .
Conclusions: There is no strong evidence for acute effects of winter outdoor air pollution on mean PEFR overall in this area, but there is evidence for negative effects on large PEFR decrements.
doi:10.1136/oem.60.2.82
PMCID: PMC1740463  PMID: 12554833
7.  An audit of first aid qualifications and knowledge among team officials in two English youth football leagues: a preliminary study 
Objectives: To determine if youth football officials responsible for dealing with injuries have appropriate first aid qualifications and knowledge?
Methods: Information was collected from two youth football leagues by questionnaire. First aiders were asked to provide details of their qualifications and their response from a list of alternatives to an injury scenario.
Results: Fifty two of 86 respondents did not have a current first aid qualification. Only 12% and 38% respectively gave the correct response to the injury scenarios "player choking" and "player unconscious". Health and injury records for the players were kept by 40% and 19% of teams. Written parental consent to emergency treatment was obtained by 30%.
Conclusion: This preliminary study shows an obligation on teams who do not possess a qualified first aider to evaluate their legal and moral responsibilities to their players. The Football Association and Health and Safety Executive should produce a list of recommended equipment, facilities, and first aid qualified personnel to which teams should have access at games and training sessions. Providers of first aid training should reassess their teaching of the management of the choking and unconscious casualty.
doi:10.1136/bjsm.36.4.295
PMCID: PMC1724527  PMID: 12145121
9.  Population implications of lipid lowering for prevention of coronary heart disease: data from the 1995 Scottish health survey 
Heart  2001;86(3):289-295.
OBJECTIVE—To determine the proportion of the population, firstly, with cholesterol ⩾ 5.0 mmol/l and, secondly, with any cholesterol concentration, who might benefit from statin treatment for the following: secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD); primary prevention at CHD risk 30%, 20%, 15%, and 6% over 10 years; and primary prevention at projected CHD risk 20% over 10 years (CHD risk at age 60 years if actual age < 60 years).
SUBJECTS—Random stratified sample of 3963 subjects aged 35-64 years from the Scottish health survey 1995.
RESULTS—For secondary prevention 7.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.9% to 8.6%) of the population with cholesterol ⩾ 5.0 mmol/l would benefit from statins. For primary prevention, the prevalence of people at CHD risk 30%, 20%, 15%, and 6% over 10 years is 1.5% (95% CI 1.2% to 1.9%), 5.4% (95% CI 4.7% to 6.1%), 9.7% (95% CI 8.8% to 10.6%), and 32.9% (95% CI 31.5% to 34.4%), respectively. At projected CHD risk 20% over 10 years, 12.4% (95% CI 11.4% to 13.5%) would be treated with statins. Removing the 5.0 mmol/l cholesterol threshold makes little difference to population prevalence at high CHD risk.
CONCLUSIONS—Statin treatment would be required for 7.8% of the population for secondary prevention. For primary prevention, among other factors, guidelines should take into account the number of patients needing treatment at different levels of CHD risk when choosing the CHD risk to target. The analysis supports a policy of targeting treatment at CHD risk 30% over 10 years as a minimum, as recommended in current British guidelines, with a move to treating at CHD risk 15% over 10 years as resources permit.


Keywords: statins; coronary risk; secondary prevention; primary prevention
doi:10.1136/heart.86.3.289
PMCID: PMC1729888  PMID: 11514481
11.  Aspirin for primary prevention of coronary heart disease: safety and absolute benefit related to coronary risk derived from meta-analysis of randomised trials 
Heart  2001;85(3):265-271.
OBJECTIVE—To determine the cardiovascular and coronary risk thresholds at which aspirin for primary prevention of coronary heart disease is safe and worthwhile.
DESIGN—Meta-analysis of four randomised controlled trials of aspirin for primary prevention. The benefit and harm from aspirin treatment were examined to determine: (1) the cardiovascular and coronary risk threshold at which benefit in prevention of myocardial infarction exceeds harm from significant bleeding; and (2) the absolute benefit expressed as number needed to treat (NNT) for aspirin net of cerebral haemorrhage and other bleeding complications at different levels of coronary risk.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Benefit from aspirin, expressed as reduction in cardiovascular events, myocardial infarctions, strokes, and total mortality; harm caused by aspirin in relation to significant bleeds and major haemorrhages.
RESULTS—Aspirin for primary prevention significantly reduced all cardiovascular events by 15% (95% confidence interval (CI) 6% to 22%) and myocardial infarctions by 30% (95% CI 21% to 38%), and non-significantly reduced all deaths by 6% (95% CI −4% to 15%). Aspirin non-significantly increased strokes by 6% (95% CI −24% to 9%) and significantly increased bleeding complications by 69% (95% CI 38% to 107%). The risk of major bleeding balanced the reduction in cardiovascular events when cardiovascular event risk was 0.22%/year. The upper 95% CI for this estimate suggests that harm from aspirin is unlikely to outweigh benefit provided the cardiovascular event risk is 0.8%/year, equivalent to a coronary risk of 0.6%/year. At coronary event risk 1.5%/year, the five year NNT was 44 to prevent a myocardial infarction, and 77 to prevent a myocardial infarction net of any important bleeding complication. At coronary event risk 1%/year the NNT was 67 to prevent a myocardial infarction, and 182 to prevent a myocardial infarction net of important bleeding.
CONCLUSIONS—Aspirin treatment for primary prevention is safe and worthwhile at coronary event risk ⩾ 1.5%/year; safe but of limited value at coronary risk 1%/year; and unsafe at coronary event risk 0.5%/year. Advice on aspirin for primary prevention requires formal accurate estimation of absolute coronary event risk.


Keywords: aspirin; coronary heart disease; primary prevention; meta-analysis
doi:10.1136/heart.85.3.265
PMCID: PMC1729640  PMID: 11179262
12.  Cost effectiveness of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) treatment related to the risk of coronary heart disease and cost of drug treatment 
Heart  1999;82(3):325-332.
OBJECTIVES—To estimate the cost effectiveness of statin treatment in preventing coronary heart disease (CHD) and to examine the effect of the CHD risk level targeted and the cost of statins on the cost effectiveness of treatment.
DESIGN—Cohort life table method using data from outcome trials.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—The cost per life year gained for lifelong statin treatment at annual CHD event risks of 4.5% (secondary prevention) and 3.0%, 2.0%, and 1.5% (all primary prevention), with the cost of statins varied from £100 to £800 per year.
RESULTS—The costs per life year gained according to annual CHD event risk were: for 4.5%, £5100; 3.0%, £8200; 2.0%, £10 700; and 1.5%, £12 500. Reducing the cost of statins increases cost effectiveness, and narrows the difference in cost effectiveness across the range of CHD event risks.
CONCLUSIONS—At current prices statin treatment for secondary prevention, and for primary prevention at a CHD event risk 3.0% per year, is as cost effective as many treatments in wide use. Primary prevention at lower CHD event risks (< 3.0% per year) is less cost effective and unlikely to be affordable at current prices and levels of health service funding. As the cost of statins falls, primary prevention at lower risk levels becomes more cost effective. However, the large volume of treatment needed will remain a major problem.


Keywords: coronary artery disease; cost effectiveness; statins; primary prevention; secondary prevention
PMCID: PMC1729169  PMID: 10455083
14.  Is the Framingham risk function valid for northern European populations? A comparison of methods for estimating absolute coronary risk in high risk men 
Heart  1999;81(1):40-46.
Objective—To examine the validity of estimates of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk by the Framingham risk function, for European populations.
Design—Comparison of CHD risk estimates for individuals derived from the Framingham, prospective cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM), Dundee, and British regional heart (BRHS) risk functions.
Setting—Sheffield Hypertension Clinic. 
 Patients—206 consecutive hypertensive men aged 35-75 years without preexisting vascular disease. 
Results—There was close agreement among the Framingham, PROCAM, and Dundee risk functions for average CHD risk. For individuals the best correlation was between Framingham and PROCAM, both of which use high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. When Framingham was used to target a CHD event rate > 3% per year, it identified men with mean CHD risk by PROCAM of 4.6% per year and all had CHD event risks > 1.5% per year. Men at lower risk by Framingham had a mean CHD risk by PROCAM of 1.5% per year, with 16% having a CHD event risk > 3.0% per year. BRHS risk function estimates of CHD risk were fourfold lower than those for the other three risk functions, but with moderate correlations, suggesting an important systematic error.
Conclusion—There is close agreement between the Framingham, PROCAM, and Dundee risk functions as regards average CHD risk, and moderate agreement for estimates within individuals. Taking PROCAM as the external standard, the Framingham function separates high and low CHD risk groups and is acceptably accurate for northern European populations, at least in men. 

 Keywords: ischaemic heart disease;  prevention;  risk factors
PMCID: PMC1728900  PMID: 10220543
15.  Small intestine in lymphocytic and collagenous colitis: mucosal morphology, permeability, and secretory immunity to gliadin. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1997;50(6):527-529.
There is a recognised association between the "microscopic" forms of colitis and coeliac disease. There are a variety of subtle small intestinal changes in patients with "latent" gluten sensitivity, namely high intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) counts, abnormal mucosal permeability, and high levels of secretory IgA and IgM antibody to gliadin. These changes have hitherto not been investigated in microscopic colitis. Nine patients (four collagenous, five lymphocytic colitis) with normal villous architecture were studied. Small intestinal biopsies were obtained by Crosby capsule; small intestinal fluid was aspirated via the capsule. IEL counts were expressed per 100 epithelial cells, and intestinal IgA and IgM antigliadin antibody levels were measured by ELISA. Small intestinal permeability was measured by the lactulose:mannitol differential sugar permeability test. IEL counts were normal in all cases, median 17, range 7-30. Intestinal antigliadin antibodies were measured in six cases and were significantly elevated in two patients (both IgA and IgM). Intestinal permeability was measured in eight cases and was abnormal in two and borderline in one. These abnormalities did not overlap: four of nine patients had evidence of abnormal small intestinal function. Subclinical small intestinal disease is common in the two main forms of microscopic colitis.
PMCID: PMC500002  PMID: 9378824
16.  Role of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor α in the developing stomach 
AIMS—To determine whether epidermal growth factor (EGF) or the related transforming growth factor α (TGFα) may have a role in the developing human stomach; to substantiate the presence of EGF in human liquor in the non-stressed infant and whether EGF in amniotic fluid is maternally or fetally derived.
METHODS—The temporal expression and localisation of EGF, TGFα, and their receptors during fetal and neonatal life were examined in 20 fetal and five infant stomachs. Simultaneously, samples of amniotic fluid and fetal urine from 10 newborn infants were collected and assayed for EGF by radioimmunoassay.
RESULTS—EGF immunoreactivity was not noted in any of the specimens examined. In contrast, TGFα immunoreactivity was shown in mucous cells from 18 weeks of gestation onwards. EGF receptor immunoreactivity was seen on superficial mucous cells in gastric mucosa from 18 weeks of gestation onwards. The median concentration of EGF was 30 and 8.5 pg/ml in amniotic fluid and fetal urine, respectively, suggesting that EGF is not produced by the fetus.
CONCLUSIONS—This study adds weight to the hypothesis that swallowed EGF, probably produced by the amniotic membranes, and locally produced TGFα, may have a role in the growth and maturation of the human stomach.

 Keywords: epidermal growth factor; transforming growth factor α; EGF receptors; stomach
PMCID: PMC1720655  PMID: 9175944
17.  Use of methyl methacrylate resin for embedding bone marrow trephine biopsy specimens. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1997;50(1):45-49.
AIMS: To evaluate the use of methyl methacrylate resin as an embedding medium for undecalcified bone marrow trephine biopsy specimens. METHODS: About 2500 undecalcified bone marrow trephine biopsy specimens were processed, and embedded in methyl methacrylate resin. Semithin sections (2-3 microns) were stained by routine tinctorial and immunocytochemical staining methods with a wide range of antibodies using a standard streptavidin biotin horseradish peroxidase technique. Different antigen retrieval pretreatments were evaluated. RESULTS: Bone marrow trephine biopsy specimens are embedded routinely in methyl methacrylate at the Haematological Malignancy Diagnostic Service at The Leeds General Infirmary. Over 50 different primary antibodies are in current use; for the majority of these, microwave antigen retrieval or trypsin digestion, or both, is either essential or greatly enhances the results. CONCLUSIONS: Embedding bone marrow trephine biopsy specimens in methyl methacrylate resin retains morphology and permits reliable, high quality immunocytochemistry. This is particularly desirable for the demonstration of neoplastic cells in regenerative marrow after chemotherapy, and in the detection of residual disease after treatment. The use of methyl methacrylate for routine use on bone marrow trephine biopsy specimens is advocated.
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PMCID: PMC499712  PMID: 9059356
18.  Correlation between epithelial cell proliferation and histological grading in gastric mucosa. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1999;52(5):367-371.
AIM: To determine if there is a correlation between the histological findings in the gastric mucosa and the degree of cell proliferation in gastric antral biopsies. METHODS: Cell proliferation in gastric antral biopsies was determined by in vitro bromodeoxyuridine labelling. Histological sections were assessed using the Sydney System. RESULTS: There was a positive correlation between antral mucosal cell proliferation and the acute inflammatory cell infiltrate (r = 0.29; p = 0.03). There was a stronger correlation with the chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate (r = 0.53; p < 0.0001) and the density of H pylori colonisation (r = 0.54; p < 0.0001). There was no correlation between gastric epithelial proliferation and the degree of atrophy. Stepwise multiple regression indicates that the only independent predictor of epithelial cell proliferation is the density of H pylori colonisation (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: H pylori increases gastric epithelial cell proliferation through the mucosal inflammatory response and probably by other means. The strong correlation between epithelial proliferation, the chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate, and the density of H pylori colonization may have implications for gastric carcinogenesis.
PMCID: PMC1023074  PMID: 10560358
19.  Lymphocytic gastritis and associated small bowel disease: a diffuse lymphocytic gastroenteropathy? 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1995;48(10):939-945.
AIM--To investigate the natural history of lymphocytic gastritis (LG) and its relation to Helicobacter pylori infection and to coeliac disease using serology, duodenal biopsy and a small intestinal permeability test. METHOD--Twenty two patients diagnosed as having LG between 1984 and 1994 were investigated by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at which gastric and duodenal biopsy specimens were taken for histological assessment and immunohistology. Serum was collected for measurement of anti-H pylori, anti-gliadin and anti-endomysial antibodies. A lactulose/mannitol absorption test was performed within one week of endoscopy. Control groups were studied by histology, serology and permeability tests. RESULTS--Three patients had been recently diagnosed as having LG while 15 still had the condition after a mean of 13.9 (range two to 38) months. LG involved the antrum alone in three patients, antrum and body in seven, body alone in six, and gastric remnant in two. Gastroduodenal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) were T cells and predominantly of T suppressor (CD8) type. Duodenal IELs were increased compared to age/sex matched controls with chronic gastritis. Four patients had duodenal villous atrophy. Four patients no longer had LG after a mean of 29.3 (10-70) months but had increased gastroduodenal IELs. H pylori was present in four (22%) of 18 patients with LG but H pylori serology was positive in 11 (61%) of 18. There was no difference in seropositivity when compared with age/sex matched controls with dyspepsia. Eleven of 20 patients with LG tested had abnormal lactulose/mannitol absorption (v none of 22 controls with chronic gastritis). Four patients with LG, all with villous atrophy, were seropositive for IgA endomysial antibody. CONCLUSIONS--The persistence of LG with time, the association with increased duodenal IELs and abnormal small intestinal permeability suggests LG may be a manifestation of a diffuse lymphocytic gastroenteropathy related to sensitivity to gluten or some other agent.
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PMCID: PMC502952  PMID: 8537495
20.  Molecular evolution and diversity in Bacillus anthracis as detected by amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1997;179(3):818-824.
Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax and represents one of the most molecularly monomorphic bacteria known. We have used AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) DNA markers to analyze 78 B. anthracis isolates and six related Bacillus species for molecular variation. AFLP markers are extremely sensitive to even small sequence variation, using PCR and high-resolution electrophoresis to examine restriction fragments. Using this approach, we examined ca. 6.3% of the Bacillus genome for length mutations and ca. 0.36% for point mutations. Extensive variation was observed among taxa, and both cladistic and phenetic analyses were used to construct a phylogeny of B. anthracis and its closest relatives. This genome-wide analysis of 357 AFLP characters (polymorphic fragments) indicates that B. cereus and B. thuringiensis are the closest taxa to B. anthracis, with B. mycoides slightly more distant. B. subtilis, B. polymyxa, and B. stearothermophilus shared few AFLP markers with B. anthracis and were used as outgroups to root the analysis. In contrast to the variation among taxa, only rare AFLP marker variation was observed within B. anthracis, which may be the most genetically uniform bacterial species known. However, AFLP markers did establish the presence or absence of the pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids and detected 31 polymorphic chromosomal regions among the 79 B. anthracis isolates. Cluster analysis identified two very distinct genetic lineages among the B. anthracis isolates. The level of variation and its geographic distribution are consistent with a historically recent African origin for this pathogenic organism. Based on AFLP marker similarity, the ongoing anthrax epidemic in Canada and the northern United States is due to a single strain introduction that has remained stable over at least 30 years and a 1,000-mile distribution.
PMCID: PMC178765  PMID: 9006038
21.  Comparison of labelling by bromodeoxyuridine, MIB-1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in gastric mucosal biopsy specimens. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1994;47(2):122-125.
AIMS--To compare proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and MIB-1 with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse labelling, a specific marker of cell proliferation, in endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens. METHODS--Twenty four biopsy specimens were obtained from 12 patients: 10 antral and eight body specimens were suitable. Each specimen was routinely processed and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. A modified Giemsa stain was used to detect the presence of Helicobacter pylori. Sections of the specimens were labelled with BrdU, MIB-1, and PC10. Gastric mucosa specimens were divided into three zones. The numbers of positively staining nuclei for 500 epithelial cell nuclei were counted in each zone and expressed as a percentage. RESULTS--The proportion of PCNA positive cells (range 0-90%) was much greater in all specimens (10 antrum, eight body). BrdU positive cells were virtually all confined to zone 2 (0-17% cells in this zone were positive) (zone 1 = surface and gastric pit, zone 2 = isthmus, zone 3 = gland base), while PCNA positive cells were present in all three zones (1 = 23-90%, 2 = 43-90%, 3 = 0-74%). Spearman's rank coefficient correlation of 0.57 confirmed that the percentage of positively staining cells varied in the same direction for both PCNA and BrdU (p < 0.001). PCNA, however, was overexpressed in all zones of the gastric epithelium compared with BrdU. In 38 biopsy specimens from 19 patients, of which 14 antrum and 11 body were suitable, the proportion of MIB-1 positive cells (0-59%) was greater than BrdU in most. As with BrdU labelling, the MIB-1 positive cells were confined to zone 2 (zone 1 = 1-11%); zone 2 = 21-59%; zone 3 = 0-13%) and the coefficient correlation for MIB-1 and BrdU was 0.63 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS--MIB-1 accurately reflects the S-phase fraction in gastric mucosa, determined by BrdU labelling in conventionally processed gastric biopsy material. Caution is needed in the interpretation of PCNA labelling detected by PC10, which should not be accepted uncritically as a marker of cell proliferation in paraffin wax embedded material.
PMCID: PMC501824  PMID: 7907613
22.  Cell proliferation in the gastric corpus in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis and after gastric resection. 
Gut  1995;36(3):351-353.
Patients who have undergone gastric resection are at higher risk of developing gastric carcinoma than normal subjects, and bile reflux is believed to play a role in carcinogenesis. An increase in mucosal cell proliferation increases the likelihood of a neoplastic clone of epithelial cells emerging, particularly where there is chronic epithelial injury associated with bile reflux. Helicobacter pylori is considered a major risk factor for gastric cancer in the intact stomach. It has been shown previously that antral cell proliferation is increased in H pylori gastritis and falls to normal levels after eradication of the organism. Little is known of corpus cell proliferation in H pylori gastritis or after gastric resection. Using in vitro bromodeoxyuridine labelling of endoscopic biopsy specimens we have found that corpus cell proliferation is increased in H pylori gastritis. Cell proliferation was greater in corpus biopsy specimens of resected stomachs than in H pylori gastritis. Subgroup analysis of patients who had undergone gastric resection indicated that those positive for H pylori had higher levels of cell proliferation than those negative for the organism. These findings provide further evidence that H pylori and bile have a role in gastric carcinogenesis and suggest that their presence has a synergistic effect on gastric epithelial cell proliferation.
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PMCID: PMC1382443  PMID: 7698691
23.  Cell proliferation in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis and the effect of eradication therapy. 
Gut  1995;36(3):346-350.
Helicobacter pylori causes chronic (type B) gastritis. The 'intestinal' form of gastric cancer arises against a background of chronic gastritis, and prospective epidemiological studies have shown that H pylori is a major risk factor for this. An increase in mucosal cell proliferation increases the likelihood of a neoplastic clone of epithelial cells emerging where there is chronic epithelial cell injury associated with H pylori gastritis. In vitro bromodeoxyuridine labelling of endoscopic antral biopsy specimens was used to measure mucosal cell proliferation in H pylori associated gastritis before and after therapy for H pylori triple infection. Cell proliferation was increased in H pylori associated gastritis patients compared with normal controls and patients with H pylori negative chronic gastritis (p = 0.0001; Tukey's Studentised range). There was no difference in antral epithelial cell proliferation between duodenal ulcer and non-ulcer subjects infected with H pylori (p = 0.62; Student's t test). Antral mucosal cell proliferation fell four weeks after completing triple therapy, irrespective of whether or not H pylori had been eradicated (p = 0.0001). At retesting six to 18 months later (mean = 12 months), however, those in whom H pylori had not been successfully eradicated showed increased mucosal proliferation compared with both H pylori negative subjects at a similar follow up interval and all cases (whether H pylori positive or negative) four weeks after completion of triple therapy (p = 0.024). These findings suggest that H pylori infection causes increased gastric cell proliferation and in this way may play a part in gastric carcinogenesis.
PMCID: PMC1382442  PMID: 7698690
24.  Application of 1 nm gold probes on paraffin wax sections for in situ hybridisation histochemistry. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1990;43(10):810-812.
An in situ hybridisation technique that uses 1 nm immunogold reagents and silver enhancement was devised to detect biotinylated DNA viral probes in formalin fixed, paraffin wax sections of human cervix. DNA probes labelled with biotin-11-deoxyuridine triphosphate were detected after hybridisation to nucleic acid sequences by an antibiotin antibody, followed by a gold labelled secondary antibody. Silver enhancement then permitted visualisation of the signal at the light microscopic level. The method was reliable and produced less background staining than previously described methods. The signal could be enhanced by epi polarisation microscopy. Furthermore, biotinylated DNA probes may be detected directly by a 1 nm gold labelled goat antibiotin antibody without loss of labelling intensity, and this may be preferable to the longer two layer technique, previously described.
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PMCID: PMC502828  PMID: 2229428
25.  Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in cells expressing abl oncogene variants. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1991;11(2):1107-1113.
A phosphoinositide kinase specific for the D-3 position of the inositol ring, phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, associates with activated receptors for platelet-derived growth factor, insulin, and colony-stimulating factor 1, with products of the oncogenes src, fms, yes, crk, and with polyomavirus middle T antigen. Efficient fibroblast transformation by proteins of the abl and src oncogene families requires activation of their protein-tyrosine kinase activity and membrane association via an amino-terminal myristoylation. We have demonstrated that the PI 3-kinase directly associates with autophosphorylated, activated protein-tyrosine kinase variants of the abl protein. In vivo, this association leads to accumulation of the highly phosphorylated products of PI 3-kinase, PI-3,4-bisphosphate and PI-3,4,5-trisphosphate, only in myristoylated, transforming abl protein variants. Myristoylation thus appears to be required to recruit PI 3-kinase activity to the plasma membrane for in vivo activation and correlates with the mitogenicity of the abl protein variants.
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PMCID: PMC359788  PMID: 1846663

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