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1.  Relation between stage, grade, proliferation, and expression of p53 and CD44 in adenomas and carcinomas of the colorectum. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1995;48(12):1098-1101.
AIMS--To investigate the changes in and relations among p53, CD44 and MIB-1 expression in adenocarcinomas of the colorectum and to determine whether these changes are progressive across the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. METHODS--Expression of p53 protein, CD44 adhesion molecule and MIB-1 proliferation antigen was detected using immunohistochemistry in 68 colorectal carcinomas and 32 colorectal adenoma. The staining characteristics were compared with degree of dysplasia in adenomas, and differentiation and Dukes' stage in carcinomas. Results were analysed and assessed using Spearman's rank correlation and independent t tests. RESULTS--p53 staining was present in som adenomas and correlated with the degree of dysplasia. There was significantly more staining in carcinomas than adenomas and significant correlation between staining and Dukes' stage. CD44 staining was maximal in adenomas, diminished in carcinomas and was minimal in metastasising carcinomas. There was inverse correlation between p53 and CD44 expression across the adenoma-carcinoma-metastasising carcinoma sequence. MIB-1 expression was highest in carcinomas but did not correlate with either p53 or CD44 expression. CONCLUSIONS--There are progressive changes in p53, CD44 and MIB-1 expression in adenomas and carcinomas. A combination of these tests may prove useful in assessing which patients with adenomas are at greatest risk of progressing to carcinoma.
PMCID: PMC503034  PMID: 8567994
2.  Lymphocyte subset infiltration patterns and HLA antigen status in colorectal carcinomas and adenomas. 
Gut  1996;38(1):85-89.
Fifty eight large bowel adenocarcinomas and 20 adenomas were studied immunohistochemically, using fresh frozen tissue sections, with regard to lymphocyte subpopulations (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, and CD20) in the inflammatory infiltrate and to expression of human leucocyte antigens (HLA-ABC, HLA-A2, and HLA-DR). The findings were related to differentiation and Duke's stage of carcinoma. The inflammatory infiltrate was found to have a phenotype that remained constant irrespective of the intensity of the inflammation. CD4 and CD3 positive cells predominated with fewer CD8 positive cells and a scanty diffuse CD19/20 positive cell population. CD19/20 follicular aggregates were common at the advancing margin of the carcinomas. There was no significant association with Duke's stage, differentiation or HLA status. HLA changes (ABC loss, A2 loss, and DR gain) were associated with differentiation, being more common and more extensive in poorly differentiated carcinomas. HLA-A2 loss was also associated with stage of progression of carcinoma. Inflammation associated with adenomas was found to have a similar phenotype to that associated with carcinomas. HLA changes in adenomas were uncommon, being seen in only one of our 20 cases.
PMCID: PMC1382984  PMID: 8566865
3.  Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and its effect on symptoms and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced gastrointestinal damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. 
Gut  1993;34(12):1677-1680.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and Helicobacter (H pylori) are both associated with an increased risk of peptic ulceration and gastropathy. It is not known, however, if there is an interaction between these two agents, and thus whether or not screening for H pylori before NSAID treatment is of value. The aim of this study was to find out if H pylori potentiates the damaging effects of NSAIDs. Fifty two patients with rheumatoid arthritis requiring longterm NSAID treatment were studied. Dyspeptic symptoms were assessed according to a standardised questionnaire. Gastroscopy was performed after a one week washout period during which NSAIDs were discontinued. Gastric and duodenal mucosal damage was graded endoscopically. H pylori was identified by biopsy urease test and by histological tests. Investigations were repeated after one month's treatment with an NSAID. Patients with H pylori infection (n = 26) had a higher dyspeptic symptom score (p < 0.05). One patient with duodenal ulcer (H pylori +ve) and two with endoscopic gastritis (both H pylori +ve) were excluded from further study. Forty two subjects completed the study. After treatment there was a rise in the gastric damage score both in the H pylori +ve (p = 0.06) and the H pylori -ve (p < 0.005) groups. There was no difference in the extent of increase in grade or the final grade at the end of the treatment period between the H pylori +ve and -ve patients. It is concluded that H pylori infection is associated with increased dyspeptic symptoms in patients receiving NSAIDs but that it does not potentiate NSAID gastropathy.
PMCID: PMC1374461  PMID: 8282254

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