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1.  Relationship between organization of the actin cytoskeleton and the cell cycle in normal and adenovirus-infected rat cells. 
Journal of Virology  1989;63(1):311-318.
Flow cytometry and staining with 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-phallacidin were used to investigate organization of the actin cytoskeleton in rat embryo cells at different stages of normal and adenovirus E1A-induced cell cycles. In uninfected cells in G0-G1 and S phases, actin was predominantly in the form of stress fibers. In G2, this organization changed to peripheral rings of thin filaments, while during mitosis, actin had a diffuse distribution. Infection of quiescent rat cells by adenovirus caused them to enter the cell cycle and replicate DNA and also caused disruption of stress fibers. Rapid disappearance of stress fibers and the appearance of peripheral rings of actin filaments began from 13 h after infection and closely followed synthesis of the E1A proteins. Infected cells began S phase at about 24 h after infection, and cells in G2 and mitosis were seen from 30 to 50 h. Thus, disruption of the actin cytoskeleton is an early effect of E1A and not an indirect consequence of the entry of infected cells into the cell cycle.
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PMCID: PMC247686  PMID: 2521186
2.  Functions of the two adenovirus early E1A proteins and their conserved domains in cell cycle alteration, actin reorganization, and gene activation in rat cells. 
Journal of Virology  1989;63(1):303-310.
Rat embryo cells were infected with adenovirus type 5 mutants that code for only one of the two early E1A proteins, mutants with defects in one of the two conserved regions common to the two proteins, or mutants with defects in the 46-amino-acid region unique to the 289-amino-acid E1A protein. Cells were scored for altered cell cycle progression, disruption of actin stress fibers, and activation of E2A expression. Mutants lacking either E1A protein were able to cause all of these effects; but mutants lacking a 243-amino-acid protein had less effect, and mutants lacking a 289-amino-acid protein much less effect, than wild-type virus. A mutation in any of the three conserved regions caused a defect in each E1A effect. To investigate the reported function of conserved domain 2 in mitosis, we monitored by fluorescence-activated cell sorter the reduction in Hoechst 33342 fluorescence that occurs when cells divide after undergoing a round of DNA replication in 5-bromodeoxyuridine. A smaller percentage of adenovirus-infected cells than mock-infected cells divided within a given period after completing a round of DNA replication. Viruses with mutations in conserved domain 2 were defective for initiation of cellular DNA replication, as were all other E1A mutants we have examined, but had no specific defect in cell division compared with wild-type virus. Thus, although there may be some specialization of function between the two E1A proteins and between their conserved domains, it was not apparent in the aspects of E1A function and the mutants that we examined.
PMCID: PMC247685  PMID: 2521185
3.  Reduced microfilament organization in adenovirus type 5-infected rat embryo cells: a function of early region 1a. 
Journal of Virology  1985;55(3):644-650.
The actin microfilament organization in rat embryo cells was examined by fluorescence microscopy with 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-phallacidin and by electron microscopy, after mock infection or infection with adenovirus type 5 (Ad5). Infected cells showed severely reduced numbers of actin microfilaments and stress fibers, detectable early after infection. Mutants defective in Ad5 early genes were used to show that reduced microfilament organization was a function of the Ad5 transformation early gene 1a (E1a) and did not require expression of any other viral gene. The product of the E1a 13s mRNA was essential for the effect, although the 12s mRNA product appeared to contribute. Ad5 infection of the cells had no observable effect on total cell actin levels or on the ratio of monomeric to polymeric actin. E1a, therefore, affected only the higher-order organization of actin.
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PMCID: PMC255031  PMID: 2991587

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