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1.  Nonmyristoylated Abl proteins transform a factor-dependent hematopoietic cell line. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1992;12(4):1864-1871.
N-terminal myristoylation can promote the association of proteins with the plasma membrane, a property that is required for oncogenic variants of Src and Abl to transform fibroblastic cell types. The P210bcr/abl protein of chronic myelogenous leukemia cells is not myristoylated and does not stably transform NIH 3T3 fibroblasts; however, it will transform lymphoid and myeloid cell types in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that myristoylation is not required for Abl variants to transform hematopoietic cells. To test this hypothesis, we introduced point mutations that disrupt myristoylation into two activated Abl proteins, v-Abl and a deletion mutant of c-Abl (delta XB), and examined their ability to transform an interleukin-3-dependent lymphoblastoid cell line, Ba/F3. Neither of the nonmyristoylated Abl proteins transformed NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, but like P210bcr/abl, both were capable of transforming the Ba/F3 cells to factor independence and tumorigenicity. Nonmyristoylated Abl variants did not associate with the plasma membrane in the transformed Ba/F3 cells. These results demonstrate that Abl proteins can transform hematopoietic cells in the absence of membrane association and suggest that distinct functions of Abl are required for transformation of fibroblast and hematopoietic cell types.
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PMCID: PMC369630  PMID: 1549131
2.  Point mutations in the abl SH2 domain coordinately impair phosphotyrosine binding in vitro and transforming activity in vivo. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1992;12(2):609-618.
We have constructed a series of point mutations in the highly conserved FLVRES motif of the src homology 2 (SH2) domain of the abl tyrosine kinase. Mutant SH2 domains were expressed in bacteria, and their ability to bind to tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins was examined in vitro. Three mutants were greatly reduced in their ability to bind both phosphotyrosine itself and tyrosine-phosphorylated cellular proteins. All of the mutants that retained activity bound to the same set of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins as did the wild type, suggesting that binding specificity was unaffected. These results implicate the FLVRES motif in direct binding to phosphotyrosine. When the mutant SH2 domains were inserted into an activated abl kinase and expressed in murine fibroblasts, decreased in vitro phosphotyrosine binding correlated with decreased transforming ability. This finding implies that SH2-phosphotyrosine interactions are involved in transmission of positive growth signals by the nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, most likely via the assembly of multiprotein complexes with other tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins.
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PMCID: PMC364250  PMID: 1370711
3.  Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in cells expressing abl oncogene variants. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1991;11(2):1107-1113.
A phosphoinositide kinase specific for the D-3 position of the inositol ring, phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, associates with activated receptors for platelet-derived growth factor, insulin, and colony-stimulating factor 1, with products of the oncogenes src, fms, yes, crk, and with polyomavirus middle T antigen. Efficient fibroblast transformation by proteins of the abl and src oncogene families requires activation of their protein-tyrosine kinase activity and membrane association via an amino-terminal myristoylation. We have demonstrated that the PI 3-kinase directly associates with autophosphorylated, activated protein-tyrosine kinase variants of the abl protein. In vivo, this association leads to accumulation of the highly phosphorylated products of PI 3-kinase, PI-3,4-bisphosphate and PI-3,4,5-trisphosphate, only in myristoylated, transforming abl protein variants. Myristoylation thus appears to be required to recruit PI 3-kinase activity to the plasma membrane for in vivo activation and correlates with the mitogenicity of the abl protein variants.
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PMCID: PMC359788  PMID: 1846663

Results 1-3 (3)