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Journal of Clinical Microbiology (1)
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Year of Publication
An elderly man with diarrhoea and cellulitis
Postgraduate Medical Journal
Phenotype of autosomal recessive congenital microphthalmia mapping to chromosome 14q32
The British Journal of Ophthalmology
BACKGROUND—Congenital microphthalmia (OMIM: 309700) may occur in isolation or in association with a variety of systemic malformations. Isolated microphthalmia may be inherited as an autosomal dominant, an autosomal recessive, or an X linked trait. METHODS—Based on a whole genome linkage analysis, in a six generation consanguineous family with autosomal recessive inheritance, the first locus for isolated microphthalmia was mapped to chromosome 14q32. Eight members of this family underwent clinical examination to determine the nature of the microphthalmia phenotype associated with this locus. RESULTS—All affected individuals in this family suffered from bilateral microphthalmia in association with anterior segment abnormalities, and the best visual acuity achieved was "perception of light". Corneal changes included partial or complete congenital sclerocornea, and the later development of corneal vascularisation and anterior staphyloma. Intraocular pressure, as measured by Schiotz tonometry, was greatly elevated in many cases. CONCLUSIONS—This combination of ocular defects suggests an embryological disorder involving tissues derived from both the neuroectoderm and neural crest. Other families with defects in the microphthalmia gene located on 14q32 may have a similar ocular phenotype aiding their identification.
Gynaecological effects of tamoxifen.
, S M
Journal of Clinical Pathology
Antimicrobial Effects of Psidium Guajava Extract as One Mechanism of its Antidiarrhoeal Action
Baharudin, H. Mohd.
The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences : MJMS
A morphine-like spasmolytic action (not naloxone reversible; involving the inhibition of acetylcholine release) and also effects on the transmural transport of electrolytes (Na+ and K+) and water have been reported as possible modes of the antidiarrhoeal action of polar fractions of Psidium guajava leaf extractives. The objective for this study was to verify if the reported modes of the antidiarrhoeal action should be broadened to include direct antimicrobial actions on some of the more common bacteria known to cause toxin-induced acute diarrhoea. Serial dilutions of a water-soluble, freeze-dried methanolic extract were tested on 10 such organisms, grown separately on nutrient agar plates, to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each of these bacteria. These included the causative agents for (i) enteric fever (Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, Salmonella paratyphi B and Salmonella paratyphi C), (ii) food poisoning (Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus), (iii) dysentery (Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei), and (iv) cholera (Vibrio cholerae). The growth of all these organisms was inhibited at the MIC of 10mg/ml of the extract, which is equivalent to 2.5μg/ml of active extractable flavonoids. The most sensitive organisms (MIC = 1mg/ml) were Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella flexneri.
antimicrobial effects; bacterial toxin-induced diarrhoea; Psidium guajava extract
Rapid Detection of a Schistosoma mansoni Circulating Antigen Excreted in Urine of Infected Individuals by Using a Monoclonal Antibody
Attallah, Abdelfattah M.
El Masry, Samir A.
El Bendary, Mahmoud
Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Schistosoma circulating antigens were used to indicate the infection intensity and to assess cure. An immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) mouse monoclonal antibody was used in a fast dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; FDA) for rapid and simple diagnosis of schistosomiasis in the field. Seven hundred Egyptians were parasitologically examined for Schistosoma mansoni and other parasitic infections. A rectal biopsy was done as a “gold standard” for individuals showing no S. mansoni eggs in their feces. Egg counts were obtained by the Kato smear method for only 100 of 152 individuals with eggs in their feces. Specific anti-schistosome IgG antibodies were evaluated in sera by ELISA. Urine samples from the 700 individuals were tested by FDA for detection of the circulating antigen. The assay showed a sensitivity of 93% among 433 infected individuals and a specificity of 89% among 267 noninfected individuals. FDA showed the highest efficiency of antigen detection (91%) compared with the efficiency of antibody detection by ELISA (75%) and stool analysis (60%). In addition, FDA detected infected patients with 20 eggs/g of feces. Also, the sensitivity of FDA ranged from 90 to 94% among samples from patients with different clinical stages of schistosomiasis. All the assay steps can be completed within 30 min at room temperature for 96 urine samples. The monoclonal antibody identified a 74-kDa antigen in different antigenic extracts of S. mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium and in the urine of infected individuals. In addition, a 30-kDa degradation product was identified only in the urine samples. On the basis of these results, FDA should be used as a rapid tool for the sensitive and specific diagnosis of Schistosoma infection.
Cell-Type-Dependent Activity of the Ubiquitous Transcription Factor USF in Cellular Proliferation and Transcriptional Activation
, Preeti M.
Molecular and Cellular Biology
USF1 and USF2 are basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors implicated in the control of cellular proliferation. In HeLa cells, the USF proteins are transcriptionally active and their overexpression causes marked growth inhibition. In contrast, USF overexpression had essentially no effect on the proliferation of the Saos-2 osteosarcoma cell line. USF1 and USF2 also lacked transcriptional activity in Saos-2 cells when assayed by transient cotransfection with USF-dependent reporter genes. Yet, there was no difference in the expression, subcellular localization, or DNA-binding activity of the USF proteins in HeLa and Saos-2 cells. Furthermore, Gal4-USF1 and Gal4-USF2 fusion proteins activated transcription similarly in both cell lines. Mutational analysis and domain swapping experiments revealed that the small, highly conserved USF-specific region (USR) was responsible for the inactivity of USF in Saos-2 cells. In HeLa, the USR serves a dual function. It acts as an autonomous transcriptional activation domain at promoters containing an initiator element and also induces a conformational change that is required for USF activity at promoters lacking an initiator. Taken together, these results suggest a model in which the transcriptional activity of the USF proteins, and consequently their antiproliferative activity, is tightly controlled by interaction with a specialized coactivator that recognizes the conserved USR domain and, in contrast to USF, is not ubiquitous. The activity of USF is therefore context dependent, and evidence for USF DNA-binding activity in particular cells is insufficient to indicate USF function in transcriptional activation and growth control.
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