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2.  Is there any advantage to combined trastuzumab and chemotherapy in perioperative setting her 2neu positive localized gastric adenocarcinoma? 
We report here a 44-year-old Moroccan man with resectable gastric adenocarcinoma with overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) by immunohistochemistry who was treated with trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy in perioperative setting. He received 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of trastuzumab, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine. Afterwards, he received total gastrectomy with extended D2 lymphadenectomy without spleno-pancreatectomy. A pathologic complete response was obtained with a combination of trastuzumab and oxaliplatin and capecitabine. He received 3 more cycles of trastuzumab containing regimen postoperatively.
We conclude that resectable gastric carcinoma with overexpression of the c-erbB-2 protein should ideally be managed with perioperative combination of trastuzumab with chemotherapy. Further research to evaluate trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy regimens in the perioperative and adjuvant setting is urgently needed.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-9-112
PMCID: PMC3204255  PMID: 21955806
trastuzumab; chemotherapy; perioperative; gastric adenocarcinoma; resection
3.  Metastatic collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney treated with sunitinib 
Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) of the kidney is a rare and aggressive malignant tumor arising from the distal collecting tubules which has been shown to have a poor response to several kinds of systemic therapy. We present a case of metastatic CDC that responded favorably to a multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, achieving a partial response in both lung and skeletal metastases. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing therapeutic activity of sunitinib against CDC. Considering these findings, it would be worthwhile prospectively investigating the role of multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitors, particularly sunitinib, in the management of metastatic CDC.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-9-73
PMCID: PMC3152528  PMID: 21752265
Collecting duct carcinoma; Sunitinib; Metastasis
4.  Diagnostic challenge for ovarian malignant melanoma in premenopausal women: Primary or metastatic? 
Background
In the ovary, metastatic malignant melanoma may be confused with primary malignant melanoma and presents a diagnosis challenge. Most cases are associated with disseminated diseases and poor prognosis. We present this case report of a metastatic ovarian malignant melanoma simulating primary ovarian cancer.
Case report
A 45-year-old premenopausal woman was incidentally found to have an abdominal mass, 3 years after removal of a cutaneous melanoma lesion. Ultrasound and CT scan revealed left two solid masses, which were found to be an ovarian tumor at laparotomy. Left oophorectomy was performed. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry showed melanoma metastasis to the ovary. Nine months later, the patient developed epilepsy and confusion. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed unique Wright frontal lobe lesion. She underwent stereotactic radio surgery and dacarbazine monotherapy. For months later, the patient is died from disseminate disease progression.
Conclusion
Ovarian metastasis is an unusual presentation of cutaneous melanoma and the prognosis was dismal. As illustrated by this case report, a differential diagnosis of a metastatic malignant melanoma must be considered.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-9-65
PMCID: PMC3157440  PMID: 21682901
melanoma; ovarian neoplasm; secondary; differential diagnosis
5.  The relationship among acute-phase response proteins, cytokines and hormones in cachectic patients with colon cancer 
Backgraund
Acute-phase response proteins (APRP), cytokines and hormones have been claimed to be an independent prognostic factor of malignancies, however the basis for their association with prognosis remains unexplained. We suggest that in colon malignancies, as similar to pancreatic and lung cancers, changes in APRP are associated with angiogenesis.
Methods
C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, midkine, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin serum levels are studied in 126 colon cancer patients and 36 healthy subjects.
Results
We found statistically significant difference and correlations between two groups. We found significantly higher serum CRP, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, VEGF-A, VEGF-C and leptin concentrations in patients relative to controls (p < 0.001). We found lower levels of the serum albumin, midkine, adiponectin and ghrelin in patients compared to control subjects (p < 0.001).
Conclusions
Cachexia in patients with colon cancers is associated with changes in APRP, cytokines and hormone concentrations. These biomarkers and cachexia together have a direct relationship with accelerated angiogenesis. This may lead to a connection between the outcomes in malignancies and the biomarkers.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-8-85
PMCID: PMC2954853  PMID: 20920199

Results 1-5 (5)