AIM: To investigate the role of p53 antibodies (p53Abs), metallothioneins (MTs) and oxidative stress markers in the early detection of dysplasia in chronic ulcerative colitis (UC).
METHODS: The study included 30 UC patients, 15 without dysplasia (group II) and 15 with dysplasia (group III), in addition to 15 healthy volunteers (group I, control subjects). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique was used to measure serum p53Abs and MTs, while advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were measured by spectrophotometric method in all subjects.
RESULTS: In group II and group III compared to group I, there were significant increases in serum levels of AOPPs (145.94 ± 29.86 μmol/L and 192.21 ± 46.71 μmol/L vs 128.95 ± 3.06 μmol/L, P < 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively), MTs (8.18 ± 0.35 μg/mL and 9.20 ± 0.58 μg/mL vs 6.12 ± 0.25 μg/mL, P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively), and p53Abs (20.19 ± 3.20 U/mL and 34.66 ± 1.34 U/mL vs 9.42 ± 1.64 U/mL, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). There were significantly higher levels of AOPPs (P < 0.05) and p53Abs (P < 0.001) in UC patients with dysplasia compared to those without dysplasia, while MTs showed no significant difference between the 2 groups (P > 0.096). In contrast, GSH levels showed a significant decrease in both patients’ groups (1.87 ± 0.02 μmol/mL and 1.37 ± 0.09 μmol/mL vs 2.49 ± 0.10 μmol/mL, P < 0.05 and P < 0.05 in groups II and III, respectively) compared with group I, and the levels were significantly lower in group III than group II (P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between AOPPs and both MTs (r = 0.678, P < 0.001) and p53Abs (r = 0.547, P < 0.001), and also between p53Abs and MTs (r = 0.739, P < 0.001). There was a negative correlation between AOPPs and GSH (r = -0.385, P < 0.001), and also between GSH and both MTs (r = -0.662, P < 0.001) and p53Abs (r = -0.923, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Oxidative stress and oxidative cellular damage play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic UC and the associated carcinogenetic process. p53Abs levels could help in early detection of dysplasia in these conditions.