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1.  Fetuin-A is related to syndesmophytes in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a case control study 
Clinics  2014;69(10):688-693.
OBJECTIVES:
New bone formation is one of the hallmark characteristics of ankylosing spondylitis, which is thereby associated with syndesmophytes. Fetuin-A is a molecule that is abundantly found in calcified tissues and it shows high affinity for calcium phosphate minerals and related compounds. Considering the role of fetuin-A in the regulation of calcified matrix metabolism, we compared the fetuin-A levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients with syndesmophytes with those in patients without syndesmophytes and in healthy controls. We also studied other biomarkers that are thought to be related to syndesmophytes.
METHODS:
Ninety-four patients (49 patients without syndesmophytes, 67.3% male, 40.7±8.7 years; 45 patients with syndesmophytes, 71.1% M, 43.9±9.9 years) and 68 healthy controls (44.2±10.6 years and 70.6% male) were included in this study. Syndesmophytes were assessed on the lateral radiographs of the cervical and lumbar spine. The serum levels of fetuin-A, dickkopf-1, sclerostin, IL-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and bone morphogenetic protein-7 were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
RESULTS:
Patients with syndesmophytes had significantly higher levels of fetuin-A compared with patients without syndesmophytes and controls (1.16±0.13, 1.05±0.09 and 1.08±0.13 mg/ml, respectively). However, fetuin-A was not different between the patients without syndesmophytes and controls. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 was significantly lower; dickkopf-1 was significantly higher in patients with ankylosing spondylitis compared with controls. The sclerostin concentrations were not different between the groups. In regression analysis, fetuin-A was an independent, significant predictor of syndesmophytes.
CONCLUSION:
Our results suggest that fetuin-A may a role in the pathogenesis of bony proliferation in ankylosing spondylitis.
doi:10.6061/clinics/2014(10)07
PMCID: PMC4221327  PMID: 25518021
Ankylosing Spondylitis; Bone Formation; Fetuin-A; Dickkopf-1 Protein Human; Sclerostin Protein Human; Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7
2.  Genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity studies of a standardized methanolic extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves 
Clinics  2013;68(6):865-875.
OBJECTIVE:
Ficus deltoidea leaves have been used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia to treat diabetes, inflammation, diarrhea, and infections. The present study was conducted to assess the genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity of a standardized methanol extract of F. deltoidea leaves.
METHODS:
Sprague Dawley rats were orally treated with five different single doses of the extract and screened for signs of toxicity for two weeks after administration. In the subchronic study, three different doses of the extract were administered for 28 days. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological parameters were monitored during the study. Genotoxicity was assessed using the Ames test with the TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains. Phytochemical standardization was performed using a colorimeter and high-performance liquid chromatography. Heavy metal detection was performed using an atomic absorption spectrometer.
RESULTS:
The acute toxicity study showed that the LD50 of the extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the subchronic toxicity study, there were no significant adverse effects on food consumption, body weight, organ weights, mortality, clinical chemistry, hematology, gross pathology, or histopathology. However, a dose-dependent increase in the serum urea level was observed. The Ames test revealed that the extract did not have any potential to induce gene mutations in S. typhimurium, either in the presence or absence of S9 activation. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed high contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed high levels of vitexin and isovitexin in the extract, and the levels of heavy metals were below the toxic levels.
CONCLUSION:
The no-observed adverse effect level of F. deltoidea in rats was determined to be 2500 mg/kg.
doi:10.6061/clinics/2013(06)23
PMCID: PMC3674303  PMID: 23778480
Ficus deltoidea; Oral Toxicity; OECD; Genotoxicity; Isovitexin; Vitexin
3.  Is there a relationship between endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms and ankylosing spondylitis? 
Clinics  2013;68(3):305-309.
OBJECTIVE:
Nitric oxide is produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and its production can be influenced by polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene. Because candidate genes responsible for susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis are mostly unknown and available data suggest that there may be problems related to the nitric oxide pathway, such as endothelial dysfunction and increased asymmetric dimethylarginine, this study aimed to assess the association of common endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms with ankylosing spondylitis.
METHODS:
One hundred ninety-four unrelated Turkish ankylosing spondylitis patients and 113 healthy without apparent cardiovascular disease, hypertension or diabetes mellitus were included. All individuals were genotyped by PCR-RFLP for two single-nucleotide polymorphisms, namely 786T>C (rs2070744, promoter region) and 786 Glu298Asp (rs1799983, exon 7). Variable numbers of tandem repeat polymorphisms in intron 4 were also studied and investigated by direct electrophoresis on agarose gel following polymerase chain reaction analysis. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index of the patients was calculated, and human leukocyte antigen B27 was studied.
RESULTS:
All studied polymorphisms satisfied Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Sex distributions were similar between the patient and control groups. No significant differences were found in the distributions of allele and genotype frequencies of the studied endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms between patients and controls. There were no correlations between endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms, disease duration, Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index or human leukocyte antigen B27.
CONCLUSION:
The results presented in this study do not support a major role of common endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms in Turkish ankylosing spondylitis patients.
doi:10.6061/clinics/2013(03)OA04
PMCID: PMC3611897  PMID: 23644848
Ankylosing Spondylitis; Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase; Nitric Oxide; Inflammation; Atherosclerosis
6.  Vitamin D status in patients with Behcet's Disease 
Clinics  2011;66(5):721-723.
OBJECTIVES:
This study investigated the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of patients with Behcet's Disease.
DESIGN AND METHODS:
Thirty-two patients with Behcet's Disease and 31 matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium (Ca), phosphate (P), and total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in both groups.
RESULTS:
There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding demographic data. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of patients and controls were 13.76 (range: 4.00-35.79) and 18.97 (range: 12.05-36.94) ng/ml, respectively. In patients with Behcet's Disease, 25-hydroxyvitamin D values were significantly lower than those of the healthy controls (p<0.001). Serum Ca, P, and ALP levels were similar in both groups. Serum ESR and CRP levels were significantly higher in patients than controls (p<0.05). There was no correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and age, body mass index (BMI), disease duration, ESR, or CRP levels. Multivariate regression analysis parameters showed that smoking, alcohol intake, and use of colchicine were the main predictors of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Of the parameters studied, the largest impact was due to colchicine therapy (p<0.001). We did not find a significant relationship between the use of corticosteroids and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.
CONCLUSION:
Our results suggest that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are decreased in patients with Behcet's Disease. Smoking, alcohol intake, and use of colchicine appear to affect vitamin D levels.
doi:10.1590/S1807-59322011000500002
PMCID: PMC3109365  PMID: 21789370
Behcet's Disease; vitamin D, inflammation; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; colchicine
7.  Determination of Serum Adenosine Deaminase and Xanthine Oxidase Levels in Patients with Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever 
Clinics  2010;65(7):697-702.
OBJECTIVE:
Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate. Despite increasing knowledge about hemorrhagic fever viruses, little is known about the pathogenesis of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever. In this study, we measured serum adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase levels in Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever patients.
METHODS:
Serum adenosine deaminase levels were measured with a sensitive colorimetric method described by Giusti and xanthine oxidase levels by the method of Worthington in 30 consecutive hospitalized patients (mean age 42.6 ± 21.0). Laboratory tests confirmed their diagnoses of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever. Thirty-five subjects (mean age 42.9 ± 19.1) served as the control group.
RESULTS:
There was a significant difference in adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase levels between cases and controls (p<0.05). However, neither adenosine deaminase nor xanthine oxidase levels varied with the severity of disease in the cases assessed (p>0.05).
CONCLUSION:
Adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase levels were increased in patients with Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever. Elevated serum xanthine oxidase activity in patients with Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever may be associated with reactive oxygen species generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system during inflammatory responses. In addition, elevated lipid peroxidation may contribute to cell damage and hemorrhage. The association of cell damage and hemorrhage with xanthine oxidase activity should be further investigated in large-scale studies.
doi:10.1590/S1807-59322010000700008
PMCID: PMC2910858  PMID: 20668627
Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever; Adenosine deaminase; Xanthine oxidase; intracellular enzyme; Nairovirus
8.  Ovarian vein thrombosis and mirror syndrome in association with sacrococcygeal teratoma 
Clinics  2010;65(4):452-455.
doi:10.1590/S1807-59322010000400017
PMCID: PMC2862666  PMID: 20454506
9.  Fascin expression in colorectal carcinomas 
Clinics  2010;65(2):157-164.
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to investigate the significance of fascin expression in colorectal carcinoma.
METHODS
This is a retrospective study of 167 consecutive, well-documented cases of primary colorectal adenocarcinoma for which archival material of surgical specimens from primary tumor resections were available. We chose a representative tissue sample block and examined fascin expression by immunohistochemistry using a primary antibody against “fascin”. We calculated the “immunohistochemical score (IHS)” of fascin for each case, which was calculated from the multiplication of scores for the percentage of stained cells and the staining intensity.
RESULTS
Fascin immunoreactivity was observed in 59 (35.3%) of all cases with strong reactivity in 24 (14.4%), moderate reactivity in 25 (14.9%) and weak reactivity in 10 (6.0%) cases. Strong/moderate immunoreactivities were mostly observed in invasive fronts of the tumors or in both invasive and other areas. Fascin immunoreactivity scores were significantly higher in tumors with lymph node metastasis (p:0.002) and advanced stage presentation (p:0.007). There was no relation between fascin expression and age, gender, depth of invasion, distant metastasis or histological grade (p>0.05). There was a higher and statistically significant correlation between fascin immunoreactivity in the invasive borders of tumors and lymph node metastasis (r:0.747, p:0.005). In stage III/IV tumors, two-year survival was 92.2% in tumors without fascin immunoreactivity, and only 60.0% in tumors with a fascin IHS>10 (p:0.003).
CONCLUSION
These findings suggest that fascin is heterogeneously expressed in approximately one third of colorectal carcinomas with a significant association with lymph node metastasis, tumor stage and location. Moreover, these results indicate that fascin may have a role in the lymph node metastasis of colorectal carcinomas.
doi:10.1590/S1807-59322010000200007
PMCID: PMC2827702  PMID: 20186299
Colorectal carcinoma; Fascin; Prognosis; Tumor

Results 1-9 (9)