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1.  Updated Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Osteoporosis: A Local Perspective 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(2):111-128.
Postmenopausal osteoporosis and osteoporosis in elderly men are major health problems, with a significant medical and economic burden. Although osteopenia and osteoporosis are more common locally than in the West, fracture rates are generally less than in Western countries. Vitamin D deficiency is common in the region and contributes adversely to bone health. Vitamin D deficiency should be suspected and treated in all subjects with ostopenia or osteoporosis. The use of risk factors to determine fracture risk has been adopted by the World Health Organization and many international societies. Absolute fracture risk methodology improves the use of resources by targeting subjects at higher risk of fractures for screening and management. The King Faisal Specialist Hospital Osteoporosis Working Group recommends screening for women 65 years and older and for men 70 years and older. Younger subjects with clinical risk factors and persons with clinical evidence of osteoporosis or diseases leading to osteoporosis should also be screened. These guidelines provide recommendations for treatment for postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years presenting with osteoporotic fractures for persons having osteoporosis—after excluding secondary causes—or for persons having low bone mass and a high risk for fracture. The Working Group has suggested an algorithm to use at King Faisal Specialist Hospital that is based on the availability, cost, and level of evidence of various therapeutic modalities. Adequate calcium and vitamin D supplement are recommended for all. Weekly alendronate (in the absence of contraindications) is recommended as first-line therapy. Alternatives to alendronate are raloxifene or strontium ranelate. Second-line therapies are zoledronic acid intravenously once yearly, when oral therapy is not feasible or complicated by side effects, or teriparatide in established osteoporosis with fractures.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.77502
PMCID: PMC3102469  PMID: 21403406
4.  Infective endocarditis at a hospital in Saudi Arabia: epidemiology, bacterial pathogens and outcome 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2009;29(6):433-436.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:
Data on infective endocarditis prevalence, epidemiology and etiology from Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region are sparse. We undertook this study to describe the pattern and the causative agents of endocarditis at a hospital in Saudi Arabia.
METHODS:
We conducted a retrospective analysis of all reported endocarditis cases at the Dhahran Health Center from January 1995 to December 2008.
RESULTS:
Of the 83 cases of endocarditis, 54 (65%) were definite endocarditis and the remaining 29 (35%) were possible endocarditis based on the Duke criteria. Patients with definite endocarditis included 39 males and 15 females (ratio of 2.6:1) with a mean age (SD) of 59.7 (18.2) years. Of the definite endocarditis cases, native valve endocarditis occurred in 44 (81.5%) cases of and prosthetic valve endocarditis was observed in 10 (18.5%). The most commonly involved valves were mitral (n=24; 44.4%) and aortic (n=20; 39.2%). The most common organisms were S aureus (n=23; 42.6%), Enterococcus faecalis (n=12; 22.2%) and viridans streptococci (n=9; 16.7%). Surgical intervention was required in 17 (31.4%) cases and the in-hospital mortality rate was 29.4% (n=15). Of all the patients, 3 (5.5%) had embolic stroke as a complication.
CONCLUSION:
Native valve endocarditis is the predominant type of endocarditis. The patients were older adults and the most common organisms were S aureus, E faecalis and viridans streptococci.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.57164
PMCID: PMC2881429  PMID: 19847079

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