Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lamiaceae) is a traditional medicinal plant which has been used in treating various ailments such as kidney diseases, bladder inflammation, arthritis and diabetes. The leaves contain high concentration of phenolic compounds, thus, rosmarinic acid (RA), 3’-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4’-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF), sinensetin (SIN) and eupatorin (EUP) were chosen as a marker compounds for standardization of various O. stamineus leaf extracts.
The aim was to develop and validate a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for quantification of 4 marker compounds (RA, TMF, SIN, EUP) in various O. stamineus leaf extracts.
Materials and Methods:
The method was developed and validated using RP-HPLC-diode-array detection at 320 nm for accuracy, precision and limits of detection and was applied for quantification of it markers in five different extracts prepared in solvents with increasing polarity, using a gradient mobile phase 0.1% formic acid: Acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1 ml/min on reverse phase acclaim polar advantage II C18 column (3 μm, 3 × 150 mm) with 18 min separation time.
The developed method provided satisfactory precision, and the accuracy of this method was in the range of 90.2% to 105.5%. All of 4 compounds showed good linearity at R2 > 0.999.
The developed method is a simple, cost effective with shorter run time (18 min) in comparison to previous methods (30 min) and utilization of environmental-friendly solvents system. Therefore, this method has the potential to replace currently used methods in the routine standardization work of O. stamineus extracts, raw materials and its commercial products.
3’-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4’-tetramethoxyflavone; eupatorin; Orthosiphon stamineus; rosmarinic acid; sinensetin
Ficus deltoidea (FD) is one of the native plants widely distributed in several countries in Southeast Asia. Previous studies have shown that FD leaf possess antinociceptive, wound healing and antioxidant properties. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of primary and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, amino acids and flavonoids.
The aim was to develop a reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection that involves precolumn derivatisation with O-phthaladehyde for simultaneous analysis of two amino acids L-citrulline and L-arginine in FD leaf extracts.
Materials and Methods:
An isocratic elution program consisting of methanol: acetonitrile: Water at 45:45:10 v/v (solvent A) and 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7.5 (solvent B) at A: B v/v ratio of 80:20 on Zorbax Eclipse C18 SB-Aq column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) were used. The flow rate was set at 1 ml/min and detection was carried out at 338 nm with 30 min separation time.
Good linearity for L-citrulline and L-arginine was obtained in the range 0.1-1000 μg/ml at R2 ≥ 0.998. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values for both L-citrulline and L-arginine were 1 and 5 μg/ml, respectively. The average of recoveries was in the range 94.94-101.95%, with relative standard deviation (%RSD) less than 3%. Intra- and inter-day precision was in the range 96.36-102.43% with RSD less than 2%.
All validation parameters of the developed method indicate the method is reliable and efficient for simultaneous determination of L-citrulline and L-arginine for routine analysis of FD.
Ficus deltoidea; L-arginine; L-citrulline; reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography
Nigella sativa, commonly referred as black cumin, is a popular spice that has been used since the ancient Egyptians. It has traditionally been used for treatment of various human ailments ranging from fever to intestinal disturbances to cancer. This study investigated the apoptotic, antimetastatic, and anticancer activities of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extracts of the seeds of N. sativa Linn. against estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Twelve extracts were prepared from N. sativa seeds using the SC-CO2 extraction method by varying pressure and temperature. Extracts were analyzed using FTIR and UV-Vis spectrometry. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on various human cancer and normal cell lines. Of the 12 extracts, 1 extract (A3) that was prepared at 60°C and 2500 psi (∼17.24 MPa) showed selective antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 53.34±2.15 μg/mL. Induction of apoptosis was confirmed by evaluating caspases activities and observing the cells under a scanning electron microscope. In vitro antimetastatic properties of A3 were investigated by colony formation, cell migration, and cell invasion assays. The elevated levels of caspases in A3 treated MCF-7 cells suggest that A3 is proapoptotic. Further nuclear condensation and fragmentation studies confirmed that A3 induces cytotoxicity through the apoptosis pathway. A3 also demonstrated remarkable inhibition in migration and invasion assays of MCF-7 cells at subcytotoxic concentrations. Thus, this study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of N. sativa in targeting breast cancer.
caspases; Hoechst 33258; MCF-7 cells; MTT; Ranunculaceae; supercritical fluid extraction
Syzygium campanulatum Korth is an equatorial, evergreen, aboriginal shrub of Malaysia. Conventionally it has been used as a stomachic. However, in the currently conducted study dimethyl cardamonin or 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6′-methoxy-3′,5′-dimethylchalcone (DMC) was isolated from S. campanulatum Korth, leaf extract. The structural characterization of DMC was carried out by making use of various techniques including UV, IR, NMR spectral followed by LC-MS, and X-ray crystallographic techniques. For determining the purity of compound, highly effective techniques including TLC, HPLC, and melting point were used. The cytotoxicity of DMC and three different extracts of S. campanulatum was evaluated against human colon cancer cell line (HT-29) by three different assays. DMC and ethanolic extract revealed potent and dose-dependent cytotoxic activity on the cancer cell line with IC50 12.6 and 90.1 µg/mL, respectively. Quite astonishingly to our knowledge, this is the very first report on S. campanulatum as being a rich source (3.5%) of DMC, X-ray crystallography, and anticancer activity on human colon cancer cells.
O. stamineus is a medicinal herb with remarkable pharmacological properties. However, poor solubility of the active principles limits its medicinal value. This study sought to prepare nano liposomes of OS ethanolic extract in unpurified soybean phospholipids in order to improve its solubility and permeability. OS liposomes were prepared by the conventional film method, and were characterized for solubility, entrapment efficiency, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size and zeta potential, release, absorption in everted rat intestinal sacs, and DPPH scavenging effect.
OS liposomes showed substantial enhancement of extract’s solubility from 956 ± 34 to 3979 ± 139 μg/ml, with entrapment efficiency of 66.2 ± 0.9%. FTIR study indicates interaction between soybean phospholipids and OS extract. TEM and dynamic light scattering showed presence of round anionic nano liposomes with particle size and zeta potential of 152.5 ± 1.1 nm and −49.8 ± 1.0 mV, respectively. A study using the fluorescent probe pyrene showed the critical micellar concentration is 9.2 ± 2.9 μg/ml. Release studies showed 94 ± 0.1% release in non-formulated extract and 62.4 ± 0.1% in OS liposomes. Released extract from OS liposomes showed improvement in DPPH scavenging effect, IC50 = 23.5 ± 1.1 μg/ml compared to 32.4 ± 0.5 μg/ml in non-formulated extract. OS liposomes were stable at pH 5.5 and 7.4, but showed reversible agglomeration at pH 1.6. Absorption in everted rat intestinal sacs showed substantial improvement in permeability of 3′-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4″-tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin, eupatorin, and 3 other unknown compounds.
Enhanced solubility, absorption and antioxidant effect may improve the overall pharmacological effects and medicinal value of OS ethanolic extract.
Orthosiphon stamineus; Soybean lecithin; Soybean phospholipids; Liposomal drug delivery system
Tephrosia apollinea is a perennial shrublet widely distributed in Africa and is known to have medicinal properties. The current study describes the bio-assay (cytotoxicity) guided isolation of (-)-pseudosemiglabrin from the aerial parts of T. apollinea. The structural and stereochemical features have been described using spectral and x-ray crystallographic techniques. The cytotoxicity of isolated compound was evaluated against nine cancer cell lines. In addition, human fibroblast was used as a model cell line for normal cells. The results showed that (-)-pseudosemiglabrin exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferative effect on most of the tested cancer cell lines. Selectively, the compound showed significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of leukemia, prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Further studies revealed that, the compound exhibited proapoptotic phenomenon of cytotoxicity. Interestingly, the compound did not display toxicity against the normal human fibroblast. It can be concluded that (-)-pseudosemiglabrin is worthy for further investigation as a potential chemotherapeutic agent.
Syzygium campanulatum Korth (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen shrub rich in phenolics, flavonoid antioxidants, and betulinic acid. This study sought to investigate antiangiogenic and anti-colon cancer effects of S.C. standardized methanolic extract.
Betulinic acid was isolated from methanolic extract by crystallization and chromatography techniques. S.C. methanolic extract was analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, LC-MS, and HPLC. Antiangiogenic effect was studied on rat aortic rings, matrigel tube formation, cell proliferation and migration, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Antitumor effect was studied using a subcutaneous tumor model of HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells established in nude mice.
Analysis by HPLC, LC-MS and FTIR confirm presence of betulinic acid in S.C. methanolic extract. Quantitative analysis by HPLC indicates presence of betulinic acid in S.C. extract at 5.42 ± 0.09% (w/w). Antiangiogenesis study showed potent inhibition of microvessels outgrowth in rat aortic rings, and studies on normal and cancer cells did not show any significant cytotoxic effect. Antiangiogenic effect was further confirmed by inhibition of tube formation on matrigel matrix that involves human endothelial cells (IC50 = 17.6 ± 2.9 μg/ml). S.C. extract also inhibited migration of endothelial cells and suppressed expression of VEGF. In vivo antiangiogenic study showed inhibition of new blood vessels in chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), and in vivo antitumor study showed significant inhibition of tumor growth due to reduction of intratumor blood vessels and induction of cell death.
Collectively, our results indicate S. campanulatum as antiangiogenic and antitumor candidate, and a new source of betulinic acid.
Orthosiphon stamineus Benth has been traditionally used to treat hypertension. The study aimed to investigate the vascular reactivity of water extract (WOS) and water : methanolic (1 : 1) extract (WMOS) of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and AT1 receptors blocker in the mechanisms of antihypertensive mediated by α1-adrenergic receptor and EDNO and PGI2 releases in the SHR aortic rings. SHR (230–280 g) were divided into four groups: control, WOS, WMOS, and losartan. After being fed orally for 14 days, the aorta was harvested and subjected to PE (10−9 to 10−5 M) and ACh (10−9 to 10−5 M) with and without L-NAME (100 µM) and indomethacin (10 µM), respectively. WOS, WMOS, and losartan significantly reduced the contractile responses to PE intact suggesting the importance of endothelium in vasorelaxation. Losartan significantly enhanced the ACh-induced vasorelaxation. L-NAME significantly inhibited the ACh-induced relaxation in all groups. Indomethacin enhanced ACh-induced vasorelaxation in WMOS. Collectively, Orthosiphon stamineus leaves extract reduced vasoconstriction responses by the alteration of α1-adrenergic and AT1 receptors activities. The involvement of EDNO releases was clearly observed in this plant. In WOS, PGI2 releases might not participate in the ACh-induced vasorelaxation. However, in WMOS, enhancement of vasorelaxation possibly due to continuous release of PGI2.
Ficus deltoidea leaves have been used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia to treat diabetes, inflammation, diarrhea, and infections. The present study was conducted to assess the genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity of a standardized methanol extract of F. deltoidea leaves.
Sprague Dawley rats were orally treated with five different single doses of the extract and screened for signs of toxicity for two weeks after administration. In the subchronic study, three different doses of the extract were administered for 28 days. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological parameters were monitored during the study. Genotoxicity was assessed using the Ames test with the TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains. Phytochemical standardization was performed using a colorimeter and high-performance liquid chromatography. Heavy metal detection was performed using an atomic absorption spectrometer.
The acute toxicity study showed that the LD50 of the extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the subchronic toxicity study, there were no significant adverse effects on food consumption, body weight, organ weights, mortality, clinical chemistry, hematology, gross pathology, or histopathology. However, a dose-dependent increase in the serum urea level was observed. The Ames test revealed that the extract did not have any potential to induce gene mutations in S. typhimurium, either in the presence or absence of S9 activation. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed high contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed high levels of vitexin and isovitexin in the extract, and the levels of heavy metals were below the toxic levels.
The no-observed adverse effect level of F. deltoidea in rats was determined to be 2500 mg/kg.
Ficus deltoidea; Oral Toxicity; OECD; Genotoxicity; Isovitexin; Vitexin
Angiogenesis plays a critical role in embryonic development and various physiological processes. However, excessive angiogenesis is associated with several pathological conditions including cancer. Pithecellobium jiringa (Jack) Prain is a traditional medicinal plant from the family Leguminosae. It is native to the Southeast Asia, where it has been used traditionally for treatment of various ailments such as hypertension and diabetes. The present work is aimed to study antioxidant and antiangiogenesis activities of P. jiringa ethanol extracts.
P. jiringa fruit rinds were extracted with ethanol and 50% ethanol. The antioxidant property was analysed using, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical scavenging assay. Phytochemical analysis was performed using thin layer chromatography and colorimetric methods. Then, cell growth inhibition was studied against a panel of human cell lines by MTT test. In vitro inhibition of angiogenesis was studied by the following assays: isolated rat aortic rings cell viability, colony formation, endothelial cell migration, endothelial tube formation on matrigel, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by endothelial cells. In vivo antiangiogenesis effect was studied by utilising fertilised chick embryos assay. The results were statistically analysed by analysis of variance.
Ethanolic and 50% hydro-ethanolic extracts showed relatively high concentration of total phenolics associated with potent antioxidant activity. The rat aortic rings study conducted showed potent inhibition of the microvessels outgrowth with IC50s 5.27 ± 0.81 μg/ml (ethanolic) and 4.45 ± 0.63 μg/ml (50% hydro-ethanolic). Both extracts arrested the growth of human endothelial cells via down-regulation of VEGF expression, leading to inhibition of other angiogenesis cascades including migration of endothelial cells, and formation of capillary network on matrigel matrix. The extracts also inhibited the neovascularisation of chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane.
P. jiringa extracts inhibit angiogenesis by blocking the VEGF expression thus inhibiting endothelial cells proliferation, migration and differentiation most likely due to presence of the antioxidant phenolics.
Pithecellobium jiringa; Antiangiogenesis; Antioxidant; Phytochemical analysis
Xanthones are a group of oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds with remarkable
pharmacological effects such as anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and
A xanthones extract (81% α-mangostin and 16% γ-mangostin), was prepared
by crystallization of a toluene extract of G. mangostana fruit rinds and
was analyzed by LC-MS. Anti-colon cancer effect was investigated on HCT 116 human
colorectal carcinoma cells including cytotoxicity, apoptosis, anti-tumorigenicity,
and effect on cell signalling pathways. The in vivo anti-colon cancer
activity was also investigated on subcutaneous tumors established in nude
The extract showed potent cytotoxicity (median inhibitory concentration
6.5 ± 1.0 μg/ml), due to induction of the
mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Three key steps in tumor metastasis including
the cell migration, cell invasion and clonogenicity, were also inhibited. The
extract and α-mangostin up-regulate the MAPK/ERK, c-Myc/Max, and p53 cell
signalling pathways. The xanthones extract, when fed to nude mice, caused
significant growth inhibition of the subcutaneous tumor of HCT 116 colorectal
Our data suggest new mechanisms of action of α-mangostin and the G.
mangostana xanthones, and suggest the xanthones extract of as a potential
anti-colon cancer candidate.
In vitro assays are economical and easy to perform but to establish relevance of their results to real clinical outcome in animals or human, pharmacokinetics is prerequisite. Despite various in vitro pharmacological activities of extracts of Piper sarmentosum, there is no report of pharmacokinetics. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate ethanol extract of fruit of the plant in dose of 500 mg kg−1 orally for pharmacokinetics. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into groups 1, 2, and 3 (each n = 6) to study absorption, distribution and excretion, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was applied to quantify pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in plasma, tissues, feces and urine to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Pellitorine exhibited maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) 34.77 ng mL−1 ± 1.040, time to achieve Cmax (Tmax) 8 h, mean resident time (MRT) 26.00 ± 0.149 h and half life (t1/2) 18.64 ± 1.65 h. Sarmentine showed Cmax 191.50 ± 12.69 ng mL−1, Tmax 6 h, MRT 11.12 ± 0.44 h and t1/2 10.30 ± 1.98 h. Sarmentosine exhibited zero oral bioavailability because it was neither detected in plasma nor in tissues, and in urine. Pellitorine was found to be distributed in intestinal wall, liver, lungs, kidney, and heart, whereas sarmentine was found only in intestinal wall and heart. The cumulative excretion of pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in feces in 72 h was 0.0773, 0.976, and 0.438 μg, respectively. This study shows that pellitorine and sarmentine have good oral bioavailability while sarmentosine is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, has become an important target in cancer therapy. Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor growth and metastasis. Koetjapic acid (KA) is a seco-A-ring oleanene triterpene isolated from S. koetjape. The solvent extract of this plant species was shown previously to have strong antiangiogenic activity; however the active ingredient(s) that conferred the biological activity and the mode of action was not established. Given the high concentration of KA in S. koetjape, an attempt has been made in this study to investigate the antiangiogenic properties of KA.
Treatment with 10-50 μg/ml KA resulted in dose dependent inhibition of new blood vessels growth in ex vivo rat aortic ring assay. KA was found to be non-cytotoxic against HUVECs with IC50 40.97 ± 0.37 μg/ml. KA inhibited major angiogenesis process steps, endothelial cell migration and differentiation as well as VEGF expression.
The non-cytotoxic compound, KA, may be a potent antiangiogenic agent; its activity may be attributed to inhibition of endothelial cells migration and differentiation as well VEGF suppression.
Vinca rosea (Apocynaceae) is one of the most important and high value medicinal plants known for its anticancer alkaloids. It is the iota of the isolated secondary metabolites used in chemotherapy to treat diverse cancers. Several high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been developed to quantify the active alkaloids in the plant. However, this method may serve the purpose in quantification of V. rosea plant extracts in totality.
To develop and validate the reverse phase (RP)-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of secondary metabolites, namely alkaloids from V. rosea plant extracts.
Materials and Methods:
The quantitative determination was conducted by RP-HPLC equipped with ultraviolet detector. Optimal separation was achieved by isocratic elution with mobile phase consisting of methanol:acetonitrile:ammonium acetate buffer (25 mM) with 0.1% triethylamine (15:45:40 v/v) on a column (Zorbax Eclipse plus C18, 250 mm % 4.6 mm; 5 μm). The standard markers (vindoline, vincristine, catharanthine, and vinblastine) were identified by retention time and co-injected with reference standard and quantified by external standard method at 297 nm.
The precision of the method was confirmed by the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), which was lower than 2.68%. The recoveries were in the range of 98.09%-108%. The limits of detection (LOD) for each marker alkaloids were lower than 0.20 μg. Different parts of the V. rosea extracts shows different concentrations of markers, flower samples were high in vinblastine content, while methanol extract from the leaves contains all the four alkaloids in good yield, and there is no significant presence of markers in water extracts.
HPLC method established is appropriate for the standardization and quality assurance of V. rosea plant extracts.
Catharanthine; isocratic; quality assurance; Vinca rosea; vincristine; vindoline; vinblastine
The title compound, C10H8O4, is one of the coumarins existing in Morinda citrifolia L (Noni). The chromenone ring system is approximately planar with a maximum deviation of 0.0208 (14) Å. The methoxy group does not deviate from this plane [C—O—C—C torsion angle = −1.5 (3)°], indicating that the whole molecule is almost planar. In the crystal packing, intermolecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into chains. These are further connected by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
Kidney stone disease is a common health problem in industrialised nations. We developed a SDS-PAGE-based method to quantify Tamm Horsfall glycoprotein (THP) for screening of kidney stone disease. Urinary proteins were extracted by using ammonium sulphate precipitation at 0.27 g salt/mL urine. The resulted pellet was dissolved in TSE buffer. Ten microliters of the urinary proteins extract was loaded and separated on 10% SDS-PAGE under reducing condition. THP migrated as single band in SDS-PAGE. The assay reproducibility and repeatability were 4.8% CV and 2.6% CV, respectively. A total of 117 healthy subjects and 58 stone patients were tested using this assay, and a distinct cut-off (P < 0.05) at 5.6 μg/mL THP concentration was used to distinguish stone patients from healthy subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of the method were 92.3% and 83.3%, respectively.
Kidney stone disease; SDS-PAGE; Tamm Horsfall Protein and diagnostic device
Kidney stone disease affects 1 - 20% of the general population. At present, the diagnosis of
a stone is done using radiography method when noticeable symptoms appeared. We developed a
non-invasive quantitative assay for urinary THP, namely ELISA; whereby our previous study and
other reports had shown the usefulness of THP as biomarker for kidney stone disease. Since
urine is biological fluid that is easily obtainable, this method could be used as a screening
assay for kidney stone prior to confirmation with radiography. The ELISA gave assay linearity
r2 > 0.999 within the range of 109 ng/mL to 945 ng/mL THP. Assay precisions
were < 4% (C.V.) for repeatability and < 5% (C.V.) for reproducibility. Assay
accuracy range from 97.7% to 101.2% at the various THP concentrations tested. Assay specificity
and sensitivity were 80% and 86%, respectively. The cut-off points at P
< 0.05 were 37.0 and 41.2 μg/mL for male and female, respectively. The assay
is cost effective and rapid whereby the cost for assaying each urine sample in duplicate is
approximately USD0.35 and within 5 hours, 37 samples can be assayed alongside full range of
standards and 3 QC samples in each plate. Furthermore, sample preparation is relatively easy
where urine sample was diluted 10 times in TEA buffer. The usability of the ELISA method for
diagnosis of kidney stone disease is evaluated with 117 healthy subjects and 58 stone
Kidney stone disease; ELISA; Tamm-Horsfall protein; Screening assay
Quality control of herbal medicines remain a challenging issue towards integrating phytomedicine into the primary health care system. As medicinal plants is a complicated system of mixtures, a rapid and cost-effective evaluation method to characterize the chemical fingerprint of the plant without performing laborious sample preparation procedure is reported. A novel research methodology based on an in-house fabricated multichannel sensor incorporating an array of artificial lipid-polymer membrane as a fingerprinting device for quality evaluation of a highly sought after herbal medicine in the Asean Region namely Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali). The sensor array is based on the principle of the bioelectronic tongue that mimics the human gustatory system through the incorporation of artificial lipid material as sensing element. The eight non-specific sensors have partially overlapping selectivity and cross-sensitivity towards the targeted analyte. Hence, electrical potential response represented by radar plot is used to characterize extracts from different parts of plant, age, batch-to-batch variation and mode of extraction of E. longifolia through the obtained potentiometric fingerprint profile. Classification model was also developed classifying various E. longifolia extracts with the aid of chemometric pattern recognition tools namely hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The sensor seems to be a promising analytical device for quality control based on potentiometric fingerprint analysis of phytomedicine.
Lipid membrane sensor; Fingerprint profiling; Quality control; Phytomedicine; Eurycoma longifolia; Chemometric