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1.  Incidence of symptomatic brain metastasis following radical radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: is there a role for prophylactic cranial irradiation? 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1020):1546-1550.
Objective
Brain metastases following radical radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are a recognised phenomenon; however, the incidence of symptomatic brain metastasis is currently unknown. The aim of the study was to identify the number of patients, staged in accordance with National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance, who developed symptomatic brain metastasis following radical radiotherapy. There are two aims: to evaluate NICE guidance; and to provide vital information on the likely benefit of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in reducing neurological symptoms from brain metastasis.
Methods
A retrospective review of 455 patients with NSCLC who had undergone radical radiotherapy in 2009 and 2010 was performed. Computer-based systems were used to identify patient and tumour demographics, the staging procedures performed and whether brain imaging had identified brain metastasis in the follow-up period.
Results
The total number of patients with brain metastasis within 6 months was 3.7%. The proportion of brain metastasis within 6 months in Stage I, II and III NSCLC throughout both years was 2.8%, 1.0% and 5.7%, respectively. Within the follow-up period (median 16 months, range 6–30 months), the total number of patients who developed symptomatic brain metastasis was 7.9%.
Conclusion
Patients staged in accordance with NICE guidance, of whom only 7.7% underwent brain staging, have a minimal incidence of brain metastasis following radical radiotherapy. The number of patients developing symptoms from brain metastasis following radical radiotherapy may be less than the morbidity caused by PCI.
Advances in knowledge
This finding supports the NICE guidance and brings into question the potential benefit of PCI.
doi:10.1259/bjr/23314501
PMCID: PMC3611712  PMID: 22993386
3.  Arl3 regulates a transport system for farnesylated cargo 
Cilia  2012;1(Suppl 1):P71.
doi:10.1186/2046-2530-1-S1-P71
PMCID: PMC3555812
4.  Higher clearance of hepatitis C virus infection in females compared with males 
Gut  2006;55(8):1183-1187.
Background and aims
According to the literature, 14–46% of subjects clear hepatitis C virus (HCV) from blood after infection. Controversy exists about sex differences in HCV clearance rates.
Patients and methods
We compared HCV clearance in males and females using data from a large population based study on HCV infection in Egypt. Definitions used in the paper were: cleared HCV infection (positive HCV antibody and negative HCV RNA test results) and chronic HCV infection (positive HCV antibody and positive HCV RNA test results). The study sample included 4720 village residents aged 18–65 years recruited through home based visits (n = 2425) or voluntary screening (n = 2295).
Results
Overall, HCV antibody prevalence was 910/4720 (19.3% (95% confidence interval 18.2–20.4)). Of those with HCV antibodies (n = 910), 61.5% had chronic HCV infection. Compared with males, females were more likely to have cleared the virus (44.6% v 33.7%, respectively; p = 0.001). Control for age, schistosomiasis history, iatrogenic exposures, and sexual exposure to HCV did not alter the positive association between female sex and viral clearance.
Conclusion
This study provides strong evidence in favour of a higher HCV clearance rate in females compared with males.
doi:10.1136/gut.2005.078147
PMCID: PMC1856273  PMID: 16434426
hepatitis C virus; natural history; epidemiology
5.  Declines in HIV prevalence can be associated with changing sexual behaviour in Uganda, urban Kenya, Zimbabwe, and urban Haiti 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2006;82(Suppl 1):i1-i8.
Objective
To determine whether observed changes in HIV prevalence in countries with generalised HIV epidemics are associated with changes in sexual risk behaviour.
Methods
A mathematical model was developed to explore the relation between prevalence recorded at antenatal clinics (ANCs) and the pattern of incidence of infection throughout the population. To create a null model a range of assumptions about sexual behaviour, natural history of infection, and sampling biases in ANC populations were explored to determine which factors maximised declines in prevalence in the absence of behaviour change. Modelled prevalence, where possible based on locally collected behavioural data, was compared with the observed prevalence data in urban Haiti, urban Kenya, urban Cote d'Ivoire, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Rwanda, Uganda, and urban Ethiopia.
Results
Recent downturns in prevalence observed in urban Kenya, Zimbabwe, and urban Haiti, like Uganda before them, could only be replicated in the model through reductions in risk associated with changes in behaviour. In contrast, prevalence trends in urban Cote d'Ivoire, Malawi, urban Ethiopia, and Rwanda show no signs of changed sexual behaviour.
Conclusions
Changes in patterns of HIV prevalence in urban Kenya, Zimbabwe, and urban Haiti are quite recent and caution is required because of doubts over the accuracy and representativeness of these estimates. Nonetheless, the observed changes are consistent with behaviour change and not the natural course of the HIV epidemic.
doi:10.1136/sti.2005.016014
PMCID: PMC1693572  PMID: 16581753
epidemiology; HIV; prevalence
6.  Acute haemorrhagic oedema of infancy 
doi:10.1136/adc.2004.060632
PMCID: PMC1720318  PMID: 15723928
7.  Declines in HIV prevalence can be associated with changing sexual behaviour in Uganda, Urban Kenya, Zimbabwe and Urban Haiti 
Sexually transmitted infections  2006;82(Suppl 1):i1-i8.
Objective
To determine whether observed changes in HIV prevalence in countries with generalized HIV epidemics are associated with changes in sexual risk behaviour.
Methods
We developed a mathematical model to explore the relationship between prevalence recorded at antenatal clinics (ANCs) and the pattern of incidence of infection throughout the population. To create a null model a range of assumptions about sexual behaviour, natural history of infection and sampling biases in ANC populations were explored to determine which maximised declines in prevalence in the absence of behaviour change. Modelled prevalence, where possible based on locally collected behavioural data, was compared to the observed prevalence data in urban Haiti, urban Kenya, urban Cote d'Ivoire, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Rwanda, Uganda and urban Ethiopia.
Results
Recent downturns in prevalence observed in Kenya, Zimbabwe and Haiti, like Uganda before them, could only be replicated in the model through reductions in risk associated with changes in behaviour. In contrast, prevalence trends in urban Cote d'Ivoire, Malawi, urban Ethiopia and Rwanda show no signs of changed sexual behaviour.
Conclusions
Changes in patterns of HIV prevalence in Kenya, Zimbabwe and Haiti are quite recent and caution is required because of doubts over the accuracy and representativeness of these estimates. Nonetheless, the observed changes are not consistent with behaviour change not the natural course of the HIV epidemic.
doi:10.1136/sti.2005.016014
PMCID: PMC1693572  PMID: 16581753
Epidemiology; HIV; Prevalence
8.  An unusually aggressive case of endometriosis showing p53 expression 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2001;54(5):396-398.
A 43 year old woman who underwent a hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for secondary dysmenorrhoea was found to have bilateral ovarian endometriosis. During the following four years she developed a series of tumour-like vaginal masses, which were locally excised, a pelvic mass causing acute large bowel obstruction, which necessitated an emergency Hartmann's procedure, and a further pelvic mass causing hydronephrosis with a non-functioning kidney. Pathological examination of all the resected specimens showed endometriosis with abundant stromal and glandular elements. Immunoreactivity for p53 protein was detected within endometriotic foci from the initial oophorectomy as well as the latest resection specimens. Immunostaining for p53 may help identify potentially aggressive cases of endometriosis for proactive treatment.
Key Words: endometriosis • p53 • immunocytochemistry
doi:10.1136/jcp.54.5.396
PMCID: PMC1731432  PMID: 11328841
9.  Re: Gynaecological effects of tamoxifen 
doi:10.1136/jcp.53.6.484-a
PMCID: PMC1731212  PMID: 10911811
10.  Lack of evidence for a saturable tetracycline transport system in Staphylococcus aureus. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1991;35(12):2643-2644.
Previous studies on tetracycline transport into Staphylococcus aureus identified a high-affinity, saturable uptake system for the antibiotic (Km, 4.76 microM) (B.L. Hutchings, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 174:734-738, 1969). However, the earlier results could not be confirmed using conditions that permitted energy-dependent, concentrative uptake of tetracycline. Kinetic artifacts introduced by inappropriate washing procedures may explain the previous results.
PMCID: PMC245447  PMID: 1810200
11.  Structure of the SAD mutation and the location of control sites at silent mating type genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1984;4(7):1278-1285.
The SAD mutation, an extra mating type cassette, has been shown to arise from an unequal mitotic crossover between the MAT and HMR loci, resulting in the formation of a hybrid cassette and a duplication of the MAT-HMR interval. The SAD cassette contains the "a" information and left-hand flanking regions from the parental HMRa cassette and the right-hand flanking sequences of the parental MAT cassette. This arrangement of flanking sequences causes a leaky but reproducible mating phenotype correlated with a low-level expression of the cassette as measured by RNA blotting. This weak expression is attributed to the loss of one flanking control site normally present at the silent HM storage loci.
Images
PMCID: PMC368909  PMID: 6095058

Results 1-11 (11)