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1.  Preventing glass injuries in the emergency department 
PMCID: PMC2658169  PMID: 17183060
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine is a powerful tool for evaluation, assessment of severity, and follow up of diseases of the spine. It is one of the most sensitive diagnostic tests for detecting anatomic abnormalities of the spine and the adjacent structures.
To determine the pattern of spinal abnormalities on MRI in Kano, Nigeria.
Materials and Method:
Patients aged between 2 and 95 years who had spinal MRI with AIRIS II TOSHIBA (0.5T) Tesla machine from January to December 2013 were reviewed. Information concerning age, gender, region and findings were recorded.
Two hundred and sixty one patients made up of187 males and 74 females were reviewed. Their ages ranged from 2 to 95 years with the mean of 46.43 ± 15.7 years. Lumbo-sacral MRI was the most commonly performed (46.4 %) followed by cervical (44.1%), thoraco-lumbar spine (4.2%), thoracic spine (3.8%) and cervical and lumbar (1.5%). The most common indication of MRI was low back pain in 211 (80.8% ) patients followed by trauma in 36 (17.8% ) patients. About 19.6% of the MRI examinations were normal while spondylosis and moderate disc prolapse was seen in 31.5% and compressive fracture comprised 7.3% of cases.
Lumbo-sacral MRI was the commonest MRI in this study and the commonest indications for MRI were low back pain and trauma while the commonest findings were spondylosis, disc prolapse, compressive fracture and spinal metastases.
PMCID: PMC4866727  PMID: 27182509
Spinal MRI; Low backache; Trauma; Nigeria; Spondylosis; Disc prolapse; Kano
3.  Treatment of orbital haemangiopericytoma with surgery and preoperative embolization 
Eye  2013;27(2):283-284.
PMCID: PMC3574241  PMID: 23288140
4.  PTEN regulates AMPA receptor-mediated cell viability in iPS-derived motor neurons 
Cell Death & Disease  2014;5(2):e1096-.
Excitatory transmission in the brain is commonly mediated by the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), AMPA receptors allow cytotoxic levels of calcium into neurons, contributing to motor neuron injury. We have previously shown that oculomotor neurons resistant to the disease process in ALS show reduced AMPA-mediated inward calcium currents compared with vulnerable spinal motor neurons. We have also shown that PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) knockdown via siRNA promotes motor neuron survival in models of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and ALS. It has been reported that inhibition of PTEN attenuates the death of hippocampal neurons post injury by decreasing the effective translocation of the GluR2 subunit into the membrane. In addition, leptin can regulate AMPA receptor trafficking via PTEN inhibition. Thus, we speculate that manipulation of AMPA receptors by PTEN may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for neuroprotective intervention in ALS and other neurodegenerative disorders. To this end, the first step is to establish a fibroblast–iPS–motor neuron in vitro cell model to study AMPA receptor manipulation. Here we report that iPS-derived motor neurons from human fibroblasts express AMPA receptors. PTEN depletion decreases AMPA receptor expression and AMPA-mediated whole-cell currents, resulting in inhibition of AMPA-induced neuronal death in primary cultured and iPS-derived motor neurons. Taken together, our results imply that PTEN depletion may protect motor neurons by inhibition of excitatory transmission that represents a therapeutic strategy of potential benefit for the amelioration of excitotoxicity in ALS and other neurodegenerative disorders.
PMCID: PMC3944269  PMID: 24577094
PTEN; iPSCs; motor neuron; AMPA receptor
5.  Prosthetic metal implants and airport metal detectors 
Metal detectors have been present in airports and points of departure for some time. With the introduction of heightened security measures in response to fears of an increased threat of terrorism, they may become more prevalent in other public locations. The aim of this study was to ascertain which prosthetic devices activated metal detector devices used for security purposes.
A range of prosthetic devices used commonly in orthopaedic and plastic surgery procedures were passed through an arch metal detector at Birmingham Airport in the UK. Additionally, each item was passed under a wand detector. Items tested included expandable breast prostheses, plates used in wrist and hand surgery, screws, K-wires, Autosuture™ ligation clips and staples.
No prostheses were detected by the arch detector. The expandable implants and wrist plates were the only devices detected by passing the wand directly over them. No device was detected by the wand when it was under cover of the axillary soft tissue. Screws, K-wires, Autosuture™ clips and staples were not detected under any of the study conditions.
Although unlikely to trigger a detector, it is possible that an expandable breast prosthesis or larger plate may do so. It is therefore best to warn patients of this so they can anticipate detection and further examination.
PMCID: PMC4165247  PMID: 23827294
Hand implants; Breast implants; Metal detector; Detection
7.  Peginterferon α-2b and ribavirin therapy in chronic hepatitis C genotype 4: impact of treatment duration and viral kinetics on sustained virological response 
Gut  2005;54(6):858-866.
Background: The response rates and duration of peginterferon alpha (PEG-IFN-α) and ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C genotype 4, the prevalent genotype in the Middle East and Africa, are poorly documented.
Aims: To compare the efficacy and safety of 24, 36, or 48 weeks of PEG-IFN-α-2b and ribavirin therapy in chronic hepatitis C genotype 4.
Methods: In this prospective, randomised, double blind study, 287 patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 were randomly assigned to PEG-IFN-α-2b (1.5 μg/kg) once weekly plus daily ribavirin (1000–1200 mg) for 24 weeks (group A, n = 95), 36 weeks (group B, n = 96), or 48 weeks (group C, n = 96) and followed for 48 weeks after completion of treatment. Early viral kinetics and histopathological evaluation of pre- and post treatment liver biopsies were performed. The primary end point was viral clearance 48 weeks after completion of treatment.
Results: Sustained virological response was achieved in 29%, 66%, and 69% of patients treated with PEG-IFN-α-2b and ribavirin for 24, 36, and 48 weeks, respectively, by intention to treat analysis. No statistically significant difference in sustained virological response rates was detected between 36 and 48 weeks of therapy (p = 0.3). Subjects with sustained virological response showed greater antiviral efficacy (ɛ) and rapid viral load decline from baseline to treatment week 4 compared with non-responders and improvement in liver histology. The incidence of adverse events was higher in the group treated for 48 weeks.
Conclusion: PEG-IFN-α-2b and ribavirin for 36 or 48 weeks was more effective in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 than treatment for 24 weeks. Thirty six week therapy was well tolerated and produced sustained virological and histological response rates similar to the 48 week regimen.
PMCID: PMC1774522  PMID: 15888797
hepatitis C; peginterferon α-2b; ribavirin; sustained virological response
8.  Does location of vertebral deformity within the spine influence back pain and disability? 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2000;59(5):368-371.
OBJECTIVE—Vertebral deformity is associated with back pain and disability. The aim of this analysis was to determine whether location within the spine influences the strength of association between vertebral deformity, back pain and disability.
METHODS—Men and women aged 50 years and over were recruited from population registers in 30 European centres. Subjects were invited for an interviewer administered questionnaire, and for lateral spinal radiographs. The questionnaire included questions about back pain, general health and functional ability. The spinal radiographs were evaluated morphometrically and vertebral deformity defined according to the McCloskey-Kanis method.
RESULTS—756 (11.7%) men and 885 (11.8%) women had evidence of one or more vertebral deformities. Among women with a single deformity, after adjusting for age and centre, those with a lumbar deformity were more likely than those with a thoracic deformity to report back pain, both currently (OR=1.4; 95% CI 1.0, 2.0) and in the past year (OR=1.5; 95% CI 1.0, 2.3). No association was observed in men. Among women with two deformities, those with adjacent deformities were more likely than those with non-adjacent deformities to report poor general health (OR=2.2; 95%CI 0.9, 5.6), impaired functional ability (OR=1.9; 95%CI 0.8, 4.7) and current back pain (OR=2.1; 95%CI 0.9, 4.9), though none of these associations were statistically significant. By contrast, among men, non-adjacent deformities were associated with impaired functional ability compared with those with adjacent deformities.
CONCLUSION—Location within the spine influences the strength of association between self reported health factors and vertebral deformity.

PMCID: PMC1753132  PMID: 10784519
11.  Cell surface T antigen in cells infected with simian virus 40 or an adenovirus-simian virus 40 hybrid, Ad2+D2. 
Journal of Virology  1981;40(2):615-619.
Cell surface T antigen, detected by a radioimmune assay that uses 125I-labeled Staphylococcus aureus protein A and antibodies against either authentic T antigen or D2 hybrid T antigen, was found in simian virus 40-transformed and -infected cells and in cells infected with an adenovirus-simian virus 40 hybrid, Ad2+D2. In simian virus 40 lytic infection, the surface T antigen appeared at the same time as the nuclear T antigen.
PMCID: PMC256668  PMID: 6275109
12.  Novel evidence that crosstalk between the complement, coagulation and fibrinolysis proteolytic cascades is involved in mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) 
Leukemia  2014;28(11):2148-2154.
The role of blood proteinases in the mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) is still not well understood. As previously reported, activation of the complement cascade (ComC) and cleavage of C5 by C5 convertase are enabling events in the release of C5a that plays a crucial role in the egress of HSPCs from bone marrow (BM) into peripheral blood (PB) and explains why C5-deficient mice are poor mobilizers. Here we provide evidence that during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor- and AMD3100-induced mobilization, not only the ComC but also two other evolutionarily ancient proteolytic enzyme cascades, the coagulation cascade (CoaC) and the fibrynolytic cascade (FibC), become activated. Activation of all three cascades was measured by generation of C5a, decrease in prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time as well as an increase in the concentrations of plasmin/antiplasmin and thrombin/antithrombin. More importantly, the CoaC and FibC, by generating thrombin and plasmin, respectively, provide C5 convertase activity, explaining why mobilization of HSPCs in C3-deficient mice, which do not generate ComC-generated C5a convertase, is not impaired. Our observations shed more light on how the CoaC and FibC modulate stem cell mobilization and may lead to the development of more efficient mobilization strategies in poor mobilizers. Furthermore, as it is known that all these cascades are activated in all the situations in which HSPCs are mobilized from BM into PB (for example, infections, tissue/organ damage or strenuous exercise) and show a circadian rhythm of activation, they must be involved in both stress-induced and circadian changes in HSPC trafficking in PB.
PMCID: PMC4177021  PMID: 24667943

Results 1-12 (12)