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1.  Gastroprotective Activity of Polygonum chinense Aqueous Leaf Extract on Ethanol-Induced Hemorrhagic Mucosal Lesions in Rats 
Polygonum chinense is a Malaysian ethnic plant with various healing effects. This study was to determine preventive effect of aqueous leaf extract of P. chinense against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. The normal and ulcer control groups were orally administered with distilled water. The reference group was orally administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole. The experimental groups received the extracts 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, accordingly. After sixty minutes, distilled water and absolute ethanol were given (5 mL/kg) to the normal control and the others, respectively. In addition to histology, immunohistochemical and periodic acid schiff (PAS) stains, levels of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidant enzymes, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. The ulcer group exhibited severe mucosal damages. The experimental groups significantly reduced gastric lesions and MDA levels and increased SOD level. Immunohistochemistry of the experimental groups showed upregulation and downregulation of Hsp70 and Bax proteins, respectively. PAS staining in these groups exhibited intense staining as compared to the ulcer group. Acute toxicity study revealed the nontoxic nature of the extract. Our data provide first evidence that P. chinense extract could significantly prevent gastric ulcer.
PMCID: PMC3544547  PMID: 23365597
2.  Mitigation of H2O2-Induced Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis in NG108-15 Cells by Novel Mesuagenin C from Mesua kunstleri (King) Kosterm 
This study was aimed to isolate and evaluate neuroprotective compounds from the hexane extract of the bark of Mesua kunstleri (Clusiaceae) on H2O2-induced apoptosis in NG108-15 cells. Five 4-phenylcoumarins were isolated by using various chromatographic techniques via neuroprotective activity-guided fractionation and isolation from the active hexane extract. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were confirmed by NMR spectroscopic data interpretation and comparison with literature values. Cell viability data demonstrated that mesuagenin C 3 significantly increased cell viability. Hoechst 33342/PI staining illustrated mesuagenin C 3 was able to abate the nuclear shrinkage, chromatin condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies. Pretreatment with mesuagenin C 3 reduced total annexin V positive cells and increased the level of intracellular glutathione (GSH). Mesuagenin C 3 attenuated membrane potential (Δψm), reduced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and inactivated of caspase-3/7 and -9. These results indicated that mesuagenin C 3 could protect NG108-15 cells against H2O2-induced apoptosis by increasing intracellular GSH level, aggrandizing Δψm, and modulating apoptotic signalling pathway through Bcl-2 family and caspase-3/7 and -9. These findings confirmed the involvement of intrinsic apoptotic pathway in H2O2-induced apoptosis and suggested that mesuagenin C 3 may have potential therapeutic properties for neurodegenerative diseases.
PMCID: PMC3418696  PMID: 22956972
3.  6-[(2E)-3,7-Dimethyl­octa-2,6-dien-1-yl]-5,7-dihy­droxy-8-(2-methyl­butano­yl)-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one–6-[(2E)-3,7-dimethyl­octa-2,6-dien-1-yl]-5,7-dihy­droxy-8-(3-methyl­butano­yl)-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1/1) from Mesua elegans 1  
The title co-crystal, C30H34O5·C30H34O5, comprises a 1:1 mixture of two mostly superimposed mol­ecules with the same chemical formula that differ in the nature of the substituent (2-methyl­butanoyl or 3-methyl­butano­yl) bound at the exocyclic ketone. The lactone ring is close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.058 Å) and the phenyl ring is twisted out of this plane [dihedral angle = 60.08 (9)°]. The geranyl substituent is almost normal to benzene ring to which it is connected [C—C—Car—Car (ar = aromatic) torsion angle = −87.8 (2)°]. Intra­molecular O—H⋯O and O—H⋯π inter­actions are formed. In the crystal, supra­molecular chains are formed along the a axis owing to C—H⋯O contacts, with the lactone carbonyl atom accepting two such bonds.
PMCID: PMC3343921  PMID: 22590002
4.  1-Meth­oxy-4-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone 
The non-H atoms of the title compound, C16H12O3, lie approximately in a common plane (r.m.s. deviation = 0.032 Å). The methyl C atom is forced away from the carbonyl O atom which can be seen by the widened Cfused ring–Cbenzene–Cmeth­yl angle of 125.8 (2)°.
PMCID: PMC3247377  PMID: 22219995
5.  1,3-Dihydr­oxy-2-methoxy­methyl-9,10-anthraquinone from Rennellia elliptica Korth. 
The title compound, C16H12O5, common name: lucidin ω-methyl ether, exists as a planar mol­ecule (r.m.s. deviation = 0.04 Å). Within the mol­ecule, the 1-hydr­oxy group forms a hydrogen bond to the adjacent carbonyl O atom, and the 3-hydr­oxy group forms a hydrogen bond to the adjacent meth­oxy O atom. The meth­oxy O atom is disordered over two positions of equal occupancy.
PMCID: PMC2969543  PMID: 21583274
6.  1-Hydr­oxy-2-meth­oxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone from Rennellia elliptica Korth. 
The title compound, C16H12O4, exists as planar molecules in the solid state (r.m.s. deviation of 0.02 Å in one mol­ecule and 0.07 Å in the second independent mol­ecule comprising the asymmetric unit). In each mol­ecule, the 1-hydr­oxy group forms an intra­molecular hydrogen bond to the adjacent carbonyl O atom.
PMCID: PMC2969574  PMID: 21583275
7.  2-Formyl-3-hydr­oxy-9,10-anthroquinone 
The mol­ecule of the title compound, C15H8O4, is approximately planar. An intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed between the hydr­oxy and formyl groups. The crystal used was a nonmerohedral twin, with a minor twin component of 15.9%.
PMCID: PMC2959712  PMID: 21581024
8.  1,3-Dihydr­oxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-di­hydro­anthracene-2-carbaldehyde 
The title compound, C15H8O5, also known as nordamnacanthal, was isolated from the Malaysian Morinda citrifolia L. The 20 non-H atoms are coplanar. The structure is stabilized by intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and inter­molecular O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming bilayers of mol­ecular tapes with alternating stacking directions along the a axis.
PMCID: PMC2960756  PMID: 21201935

Results 1-8 (8)