Background. In this retrospective study, we aimed to compare the results of two surgical techniques, conventional and transverse mini-incision. Materials and Methods. 95 patients were operated between 2011 and 2012 in Bitlis State Hospital. 50 patients were operated with conventional technique and 45 of them were operated with minimal transverse incision. Postoperative complications, incision site problems, and the time of starting to use their hands in daily activities were noted. Results. 95 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 48. 87 of them were female and 8 were male. There was no problem of incision site in both of the two surgical techniques. Only in one patient, anesthesia developed in minimal incision technique. The time of starting to use their hands in daily activities was 22,2 days and 17 days in conventional and minimal incision technique, respectively. Conclusion. Two surgical techniques did not show superiority to each other in terms of postoperative complications and incision site problems except the time of starting to use their hands in daily activities.
Aim. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of the frequent problems of the patients who underwent hemodialysis (HD). The role of venous hypertension due to arteriovenous fistula (AVF) has not been clarified completely; therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of venous hypertension due to AVF in hemodialysis patients who had CTS. Patients and Methods. We included 12 patients who had been receiving HD treatment for less than 8 years and the newly diagnosed CTS patients with the same arm of AVF. All patients were diagnosed clinically and the results were confirmed by both nerve conduction studies and electromyography. Open carpal tunnel release surgery was performed on all of them. Venous pressure was measured in all patients before and after two weeks of surgery. Results. There were significant differences before and after the surgery with regard to pressures (P > 0.05). After the surgery, all carpal ligament specimens of the patients were not stained with Congo red for the presence of amyloid deposition. Conclusion. Increased venous pressure on the same arm with AVF could be responsible for CTS in hemodialysis patients. Carpal tunnel release surgery is the main treatment of this disease by reducing the compression on the nerve.
Methacrylate is a valuable tool to the neurosurgeon, even though it is currently being replaced by custom bone. During cranioplasty in the absence of custom bone, which is preformed based on the patients imaging, one has to make a cast to cover the cranial defect with or without the use of a mould. A good artificial skull outline is necessary for prevention of implant extrusion and acceptable cosmetic outcome. Using the patients head as a mould is a simple, cheap, and useful technique. An incision is made, and either a craniectomy or an attempt at skull elevation or separation of the scalp from dura is done based on the indication for the cranioplasty. The methacrylate monomer is mixed with its solvent. It is placed in between a sliced glove and then thinned out. Several layers of drapes are placed on the patients head, the acrylate which is in between the gloves is then placed on the drapes. As soon as it starts setting and the required shape obtained, it is removed and place on the sterile tray. It is then anchored and the wound closed. This technique produces good cosmetic outcome. However, the head must be properly protected from the risk of burns from the exothermic reaction. The technique is described in a 40-year-old driver who had a compound depressed skull fracture. He had a methylmethacrylate cranioplasty in the 9th week post trauma after allowing for wound healing. We recommend that this technique may be used in centers where custom bone is either too expensive or not available during cranioplasty in order to obtain a good outcome.
Acrylate; cranial defects; cranioplast; cranioplasty; decompressive craniectomy; mould; head; polymethylmethacrylate
Introduction. Gastric cancer is the second cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Delayed diagnosis leads to high mortality rates. Eotaxin-1 was originally discovered as an eosinophil-selective chemoattractant and may play a role in a number of chronic inflammatory diseases, cancer, and other gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to analyse diagnostic and prognostic significance of serum eotaxin-1 (s-eotaxin-1) levels in gastric cancer. Methods. Sixty gastric cancer patients and 69 healthy subjects were included into the study. S-eotaxin-1 levels were compared with clinicopathological features and outcomes in gastric cancer. Results. Serum levels of eotaxin-1 in gastric cancer patients were significantly higher than controls (74.51 ± 16.65 pg/mL versus 16.79 ± 5.52 pg/mL, respectively (P < 0.001)). The s-eotaxin-1 levels did not differ significantly with histopathological grade, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, tumor localization, lymph node metastases, positive lymph node ratio, size, perineural and perivascular invasion. So there is no relationship found between s-eotaxin-1 level and prognosis. Conclusion. S-eotaxin-1 levels may be used as an easily available biomarker for gastric cancer risk and may alert physicians for early diagnosis. Due to the limited number of patients included in this study, larger cohort studies are warranted to validate the diagnostic value of s-eotaxin-1 level in gastric cancer.
Cases of retained foreign bodies during surgery are more frequently seen in developing countries. Following surgical procedures, unintentionally retained foreign bodies can cause serious complications, in addition to medico-legal issues.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 60-year-old man presented with abdominal cramps. He had previously undergone a laparoscopic radical right nephrectomy due to renal cell carcinoma. Abdominal tomography revealed a mass surrounding the main vascular structures with malignant features in the location of previously performed nephrectomy. Further evaluation of the mass was undertaken by PET/CT. Increased FDG uptake on the PET/CT scan suggested disease recurrence. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was performed. The dissection specimen was opened to determine the nature of the mass. Retained plastic foreign bodies were found. There were no malignant cells in the histopathological examination of the surgical specimen.
A granulomatous reaction which is mainly responsible for morbidity occurs around the foreign bodies due to the inflammatory response. These granulomas may cause confusion during patient follow-up, especially in those who have undergone major abdominal surgery due to cancer.
Following surgical resection for malignancy, unintentionally retained foreign bodies can produce a moderate increase in FDG uptake mimicking disease recurrence.
Foreing body; Malignancy; Retroperitoneal; Surgery
Background. Hepatic hydatid cyst infection is caused by microorganisms named Echinococcus which belong to family Taeniidae. Platelets are considered as a mediator in inflammation and infectious diseases because of the various proinflammatory substances that they contain. Design and Methods. Thirty-three patients who were admitted to Doğubayazıt State Hospital's General Surgery Clinic with a diagnosis of hepatic cyst hydatid were enrolled in this retrospective study. Laboratory data of the patients in pre- and postoperative periods were obtained from computerized medical records database of the hospital. Results. Preoperative mean platelet volume (MPV) of the patients was significantly increased compared to postoperative MPV values. Conclusion. We claim that MPV is a useful follow-up marker after surgery in patients with hydatid cyst.
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and epilepsy are pathologies rarely seen together. In this study we report an AIS case we operated in which epilepsy was seen post operatively. We want to emphasize the items one should pay attention in such cases.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
In a 14-year-old girl with AIS and concomitant syringomyelia and spondylolisthesis, posterior deformity correction and fusion were performed. After stabilization the patient was discharged on the 10th day of discharge epileptic seizure appeared.
In scoliosis surgery, the mechanic stress and bleeding caused by the operation itself can cause neurological problems due to primary nervous system injury. The operation and bleeding during and after the operation, pulmonary and cardiac functional instability, metabolic imbalance can be the causes of epileptic seizures.
Epilepsy seen after a major surgery like scoliosis surgery, can be either as a result of central nervous system origined vascular and hypoxic problems or metabolic. In our case we concluded that massive hemorrhage must have induced epilepsy. In neurologic consultations the case was considered as an incidental epileptic picture.
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Epilepsy; Vertebral posterior instrumentation
Aim. Genitourinary fistulas are bothersome clinical entities not only for the patient but also for the treating surgeon as well. A lot of surgical procedures have been proposed; however, most of the fistulas can be easily treated with plain surgical techniques, such as the simple surgical closure of the fistula tract. Material and Method. The study was carried out in the urogynecology department of Ankara Etlik Zübeyde Hanım Maternity Training and Research Hospital. The study included 12 cases with vesicovaginal fistulas and 15 cases with rectovaginal fistulas. Twenty-six patients underwent simple surgical closure technique. The age, the referral time to the hospital, the longest diameter of the fistula opening, the hospitalization time, the follow-up period and identifiable risk factors of the patients were evaluated. Results. Caeserean section was detected as primary risk factor for vesicovaginal fistulas and prolonged labor was detected as the most important risk factor for rectovaginal fistulas. In our study, we found that the simple closure technique cured 91% of vesicovaginal fistulas and 93% of rectovaginal fistulas. Conclusion. The simple closure technique has very high cure rates for both vesicovaginal and rectovaginal fistulas when the longest diameter of the fistula openings is ≤5 mm.
We aimed to investigate the impact of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on the varicocele treatment. 101 patients underwent spermatic vein ligation between 2007 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Those patients were divided into two groups as without (n: 56, Group 1) or with MetS (n: 48, Group 2). All the patients underwent left microsurgical subinguinal spermatic vein ligation. Groups were compared by the improvement on sperm parameters and spontaneous pregnancy rates at a mean of 19 (±4) months followup. When sperm parameters were compared postoperatively, the significant improvement in total sperm count, motile sperm count percentage, and normal sperm percentage was reported. The groups were compared to each other and the improvement seemed significantly better in Group 1. There was no statistically significant improvement difference in the normal sperm percentage between groups. Spontaneous pregnancy rate after two years was 45% in Group 1 and 34% in Group 2 (P < 0.05). Patients with MetS and varicocele improved after surgery, but not as well as the similar group without MetS. This may help to show that MetS can be a factor for male infertility.
Hepatitis C; prevalence; fibrosis; histology; treatment; pegylated interferon; direct acting antiviral; response
Guidelines support the use of ultrasound (US)-guided central venous cannulation in the intensive care unit. Traditional techniques based on anatomical landmarks are blind procedures and inexpert USG procedures may be hazardous. Commercially available phantoms for simulation and training are expensive. The technique of making a low-cost reusable gelatin phantom which simulates subclavian vein anatomy is described. Techniques to improve eye-hand skills with this phantom are described. This phantom is easy to make, inexpensive and easily renewable.
Central venous cannulation; gelatin phantom; subclavian vein; ultrasound-guided
Background. The aim of this study is to assess the role of multiparameter analysis of silver (Ag)-stained nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) technique on aspiration smears of thyroid swellings to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. Materials and Methods. Aspiration smears from 166 cases of thyroid swellings were examined. Diagnosis was confirmed by histology in 61 cases. AgNOR staining was done on FNA smears according to silver-staining protocol proposed by the International Committee for AgNOR quantification. Multiparameter analysis of AgNORs such as mAgNOR, pAgNOR, and AgNOR size grade was done on 50–100 cells under oil immersion lens. Results. AgNOR parameter of benign and malignant thyroid lesions was compared and was found to be statistically significant. Out of 157 satisfactory AgNOR stained cases, 148 (94.3%) were benign lesions and 9 (5.7%) cases were malignant lesions. In AgNOR analysis, sensitivity was found to be 83.33%, specificity 100%, PPV 100%, NPV 98.21%, and accuracy was 98.36%. Conclusions. AgNOR analysis in the FNA smears is a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid swellings.
Background/Aims. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) alone and UDCA plus domperidone on dissolution of solitary or multiple gallstones. Methods. Fifty-three patients with cholesterol gallstones were randomized into three treatment groups: group I (n = 22) was given UDCA (15 mg/kg/day) alone and group II (n = 18) was treated with domperidone (30 mg/day) in addition to UDCA. The control group (n = 13) was followed without a medical treatment. Gallbladder volumes and ejection fractions were measured sonographically in all patients before and after treatment. Results. After 12 months of treatment, stone dissolution was found in 9 (40.9%) of the patients in group I and 7 (38.8%) of the patients in group II. The difference was statistically significant compared to controls in both treatment groups (P < 0.05) but the two groups did not show a difference between each other (P > 0.05). All the patients that achieved dissolution had multiple gallstones except for one patient with a solitary stone in group I. Neither monotherapy of UDCA nor the combination with domperidone affected the ejection fraction of gallbladder. Conclusions. Combination with domperidone did not potentiate the efficacy of UDCA. It has been observed that both UDCA alone and UDCA plus domperidone treatment did not affect ejection fraction of gallbladder.
Background. Undescended testis is one of the most common urological problems in children, affecting about 1% of boys at age of 1 year. Of these, about 20% have a nonpalpable testis with a very high probability that the testis is absent. This may have a significant impact on the possibility of malignancy in these testes, as well as on the later fertility of these subjects. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and clinical findings, as well as immediate and 6-month outcomes, in 91 patients diagnosed with impalpable undescended testes between January 2006 and December 2010. Results. Of the 91 patients, 9 had bilateral and 82 had unilateral impalpable testes. All 100 testes were managed laparoscopically. The largest group of intra-abdominal testes in this series, 42 testes, was entering the internal ring; in these, laparoscopic exploration and standard open orchiopexy resulted in a 66% success rate. The total success rate was 63.3%. Conclusion. Laparoscopy is extremely useful in both the diagnosis and treatment of impalpable testes. Objectively measured mobility of the testis towards the contralateral internal inguinal ring is an excellent intraoperative indicator for type of orchiopexy. Standardization of management may increase the success rate of orchiopexy.
Background. Although open Ramstedt's pyloromyotomy is the gold standard for the surgical management of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, laparoscopic pyloromyotomy has been found highly successful. Various factors, however, can affect the outcomes of surgical interventions in these patients. We observed a relationship between the number of ports used and outcome in patients undergoing laparoscopic pyloromyotomies. Methods. We retrospectively assessed the medical records of selected group of patients who underwent laparoscopic pyloromyotomy in our institution. Factors analyzed included operation time, length of hospital stay, postoperative complications, and time to postoperative full feeding. Results. We observed failure of myotomy in both two patients who underwent laparoscopic pyloromyotomy using only two working ports compared to successful myotomies in the remaining patients. Conclusion. Laparoscopy provides good results in terms of intraoperative exposure and cosmesis. However, standardized surgical technique with two working ports is advisable, and this can trigger further research to be ascertained.
The role of oxidized immunoglobulin G in type 1 diabetic smokers has been investigated in the present study. Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was modified by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The binding characteristics of circulating autoantibodies in type 1 diabetes patients against native and modified IgG were assessed by direct binding ELISA. High degree of specific binding by 68.5% of patients sera towards ROS-modified IgG was observed in comparison to its native analogue (p < 0.05). In addition, diabetic smokers (n = 28) were examined and the results were compared with diabetic non-smokers (n = 26). Circulating antibodies of diabetic smokers showed substantially stronger binding to modified IgG as compared with the antibodies present in diabetic non-smokers (p < 0.05). Normal human sera (n = 53) showed negligible binding with either antigen. Competitive inhibition ELISA reiterates the direct binding results. The increase in total serum protein carbonyl levels in the diabetic smokers was largely due to an increase in oxidized IgG. Diabetic smokers showed substantially higher carbonyl contents in sera as well as
in purified IgG as compared with sera and IgG of diabetic non-smokers. Collectively, the oxidation of plasma proteins, especially IgG, might enhance oxidative stress in type 1 diabetes smokers.
Type 1 diabetic smokers; oxidized IgG; autoantibodies; reactive oxygen species
In vitro assays are economical and easy to perform but to establish relevance of their results to real clinical outcome in animals or human, pharmacokinetics is prerequisite. Despite various in vitro pharmacological activities of extracts of Piper sarmentosum, there is no report of pharmacokinetics. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate ethanol extract of fruit of the plant in dose of 500 mg kg−1 orally for pharmacokinetics. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into groups 1, 2, and 3 (each n = 6) to study absorption, distribution and excretion, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was applied to quantify pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in plasma, tissues, feces and urine to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Pellitorine exhibited maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) 34.77 ng mL−1 ± 1.040, time to achieve Cmax (Tmax) 8 h, mean resident time (MRT) 26.00 ± 0.149 h and half life (t1/2) 18.64 ± 1.65 h. Sarmentine showed Cmax 191.50 ± 12.69 ng mL−1, Tmax 6 h, MRT 11.12 ± 0.44 h and t1/2 10.30 ± 1.98 h. Sarmentosine exhibited zero oral bioavailability because it was neither detected in plasma nor in tissues, and in urine. Pellitorine was found to be distributed in intestinal wall, liver, lungs, kidney, and heart, whereas sarmentine was found only in intestinal wall and heart. The cumulative excretion of pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in feces in 72 h was 0.0773, 0.976, and 0.438 μg, respectively. This study shows that pellitorine and sarmentine have good oral bioavailability while sarmentosine is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
Nigella sativa or Black seed (N. sativa L.) is traditionally used for several ailments in many Middle Eastern countries. It is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the Ranuculacea family with many beneficial properties as antitumor, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antioxidative and antibacterial. This work attempted to study the effect of N. sativa seeds powder and oil on atherosclerosis in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits in comparison with simvastatin (ST). Twenty-five adult New Zealand male white rabbits, weighing 1.5–2.5 kg, were divided into five groups; normal group (NC, n = 5) and four hypercholesterolemic groups (n = 20): a positive control (PC) and three HC groups force fed diet supplemented with 1000 mg Kg−1 body weight of N. sativa powder (NSP), 500 mg Kg−1 body N. sativa oil (NSO) and 10 mg Kg−1 ST for 8 weeks. Feeding HC rabbits with N. sativa either in powder or oil forms was shown to significantly reduce (P < .05) total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) levels and enhance high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels after treatment for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks compared to the PC group. Plaque formation was significantly inhibited while the intima: media ratio was significantly reduced in the NSP and NSO supplemented groups compared to the PC group. In conclusion, treatment of HC rabbits with N. sativa seeds powder or oil showed hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic cardioprotective properties.
We report a baby with an unusual umbilical cord swelling. On the antenatal scans, a cystic area within the umbilical cord near its insertion onto the abdominal wall was detected. Postnatally an unusually thick umbilical cord with a yellow fluid filled cyst at the base was noted. The fluid from the cyst was confirmed as urine and ultrasound confirmed patent urachus. The baby underwent a cystoscopy and excision of patent urachus with associated allantoic cyst. Allantoic cyst is a rare swelling formed at the base of umbilicus associated with a patent urachus which results from an allantoic remnant. Paediatricians need to be aware about this condition as investigation is required to differentiate allantois cysts from umbilical pseudocysts. A patent urachus with allantoic cyst requires surgical excision.
Postmenopausal osteoporosis and osteoporosis in elderly men are major health problems, with a significant medical and economic burden. Although osteopenia and osteoporosis are more common locally than in the West, fracture rates are generally less than in Western countries. Vitamin D deficiency is common in the region and contributes adversely to bone health. Vitamin D deficiency should be suspected and treated in all subjects with ostopenia or osteoporosis. The use of risk factors to determine fracture risk has been adopted by the World Health Organization and many international societies. Absolute fracture risk methodology improves the use of resources by targeting subjects at higher risk of fractures for screening and management. The King Faisal Specialist Hospital Osteoporosis Working Group recommends screening for women 65 years and older and for men 70 years and older. Younger subjects with clinical risk factors and persons with clinical evidence of osteoporosis or diseases leading to osteoporosis should also be screened. These guidelines provide recommendations for treatment for postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years presenting with osteoporotic fractures for persons having osteoporosis—after excluding secondary causes—or for persons having low bone mass and a high risk for fracture. The Working Group has suggested an algorithm to use at King Faisal Specialist Hospital that is based on the availability, cost, and level of evidence of various therapeutic modalities. Adequate calcium and vitamin D supplement are recommended for all. Weekly alendronate (in the absence of contraindications) is recommended as first-line therapy. Alternatives to alendronate are raloxifene or strontium ranelate. Second-line therapies are zoledronic acid intravenously once yearly, when oral therapy is not feasible or complicated by side effects, or teriparatide in established osteoporosis with fractures.
Sadia Ismail and Graham Mulley discuss the evolution of rules surrounding visiting patients in hospital
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of death in the United Kingdom. Regular screening could significantly reduce CRC-related morbidity and mortality. However, screening programmes in the United Kingdom have to date seen uptake rates of less than 60%. Attitudes towards screening are the primary factors determining patient uptake.
A questionnaire was sent to people aged 50–69 years who were registered with general practices in the West Midlands. A total of 11 355 people (53%) completed the questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify those factors (gender, age, ethnicity, deprivation, number of symptoms, and their duration) that most strongly contributed to negative/positive attitudes in the primary care population.
Fourteen percent of respondents had a negative attitude towards screening. Men, older people, and those with Indian ethnic backgrounds were more likely to have negative attitudes toward screening, whereas people with Black-Caribbean ethnic background, people with multiple symptoms and those reporting abdominal pain, bleeding, and tiredness were more likely to have a positive attitude.
Culturally relevant screening strategies should aim to increase knowledge of the symptoms and signs related to bowel cancer among South Asian ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. It is also important to find ways to increase the acceptability of screening among asymptomatic patients.
colorectal cancer; screening; attitude; ethnic minority; symptom
Dosimetric properties of virtual wedge (VW) and physical wedge (PW) in 6- and 10-MV photon beams from a Siemens ONCOR linear accelerator, including wedge factors, depth doses, dose profiles, peripheral doses, are compared. While there is a great difference in absolute values of wedge factors, VW factors (VWFs) and PW factors (PWFs) have a similar trend as a function of field size. PWFs have stronger depth dependence than VWF due to beam hardening in PW fields. VW dose profiles in the wedge direction, in general, match very well with those of PW, except in the toe area of large wedge angles with large field sizes. Dose profiles in the nonwedge direction show a significant reduction in PW fields due to off-axis beam softening and oblique filtration. PW fields have significantly higher peripheral doses than open and VW fields. VW fields have similar surface doses as the open fields, while PW fields have lower surface doses. Surface doses for both VW and PW increase with field size and slightly with wedge angle. For VW fields with wedge angles 45° and less, the initial gap up to 3 cm is dosimetrically acceptable when compared to dose profiles of PW. VW fields in general use less monitor units than PW fields.
Physical wedge; virtual wedge; wedge; wedge dosimetry
Background: This work was planned to check for the association of polymorphisms related to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genes with overweight/obesity among Saudi subjects from Qassim region.
Methods: This work included 130 subjects having overweight or obesity and 111 normal controls. Their age mean ± SD was 27 ± 9.8 and 24 ± 8.8 years respectively. Their DNA was analyzed for polymorphisms of MTHFR; 677C/T and 1298 A/C and ACE; I/D genes using real-time PCR.
Results: Genotype and allele frequencies of studied polymorphisms in cases of overweight/obesity showed no significant statistical difference compared to that of controls. However, on analysis of body mass index (BMI), cases showed slightly higher but statistically nonsignificant mean ± SD values among those carrying the mutant MTHFR 677 T allele (CT + TT vs. CC, 30.7 ± 4.5 vs. 29.9 ± 4.9), 1298 C allele (AC + CC vs. AA, 29.9 ± 4.1 vs. 29.7 ± 5.5) and ACE D allele (ID + DD vs. II, 30.0 ± 5.1 vs. 29.1 ± 2.8). In addition controls having the DD and ID genotypes showed higher statistically significant values of BMI than those of the II genotype (22.0 ± 1.9, 21.7 ± 2.6 and 19.5 ± 2.3 respectively, p < 0.05).
Conclusion: There is no solid association of polymorphisms related to MTHFR and ACE genes with non-complicated overweight or obesity among Saudi subjects from Qassim Region.
Obesity; Saudi population; MTHFR; ACE; gene polymorphism; Qassim Region