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1.  Effect of Spirulina Intervention on Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Status, and Lipid Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:486120.
Background and Objective. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. Methods. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. Results. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference (P = 0.000) between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG). Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2) mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol (P = 0.000) while increasing GSH, Vit C level (P = 0.000), and the activity of SOD (P = 0.000) and GST (P = 0.038). At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4) mg dose has favorable significant effect (P = 0.000) on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL (P = 0.163).
doi:10.1155/2015/486120
PMCID: PMC4320919
2.  Laparoscopic Appendectomy versus Mini-Incision Appendectomy in Patients with Lower Body Mass Index and Noncomplicated Appendicitis 
Laparoscopic appendectomy has become favored over open surgical methods for its association with decreased postoperative pain, more rapid return to daily activities, and improved cosmetic results. Mini-incision appendectomy was being performed in our clinic for a long time especially in patients with noncomplicated appendicitis and in patients with appropriate body mass index. Although laparoscopy presents obvious advantages especially for obese patients and young women, with respect to the results of our study, mini-incision appendectomy seems to be an alternative for selected patient groups.
doi:10.1155/2014/138648
PMCID: PMC4279121  PMID: 25580110
3.  Co-existence of L5-S1 disc herniation and conus medullaris ependymoma 
INTRODUCTION
The lumbar disc herniations are seen very common than spinal ependymomas in the neurosurgery polyclinic routine.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
In our case, both pathologies were seen at the most frequently located levels compatible with the literature.
Aim of this case report is, to remind once more that, different pathologies can be found at the same time in a single patient; differential diagnosis must be done very carefully.
DISCUSSION
The routine Computed Tomography (CT) imaging for low back pain can not show the conus medullaris pathology. Spinal tumors or other similar pathologies should be kept in mind for differential diagnosis. A good medical history and a good physical examination must be completed before the final diagnosis.
CONCLUSION
Viewing of spinal canal with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) will be useful for the patients who we intend to do disc surgery.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.10.023
PMCID: PMC4275805  PMID: 25460457
Conus medullaris; Ependymoma; Lumbar disc herniation; Magnetic resonance imaging; Spinal tumor
4.  The Antinociceptive Effects of Tualang Honey in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Preliminary Study 
Tualang honey (蜂蜜 Fēng Mì) is known to have anti-inflammatory property, but its antinociceptive property has not been extensively investigated. In this study, we examined the preemptive effects on administering different doses of Tualang honey and prednisolone on the nociceptive response in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (n = 7) and each group received either distilled water, Tualang honey (0.2, 1.2 or 2.4 g/kg) or prednisolone (10 mg/kg) for 10 days. The response to noxious thermal stimulus was assessed using tail flick test on Day 10. The well-being of the rats was also assessed by monitoring their food intake and body weight. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Scheffe's test and P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. In tail flick test, the tail flick latency time was significantly higher in the groups that received 1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg of Tualang honey and 10 mg/kg of prednisolone, compared to the control group (P < 0.05). There was significant reduction in the total food pellet intake in the groups receiving prednisolone and Tualang honey (1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg) compared to controls; however, the body weight gain was only significantly reduced in the prednisolone group. All the parameters were not significantly affected in the group receiving 0.2 g/kg of Tualang honey. In conclusion, preemptive administration of Tualang honey (1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg) and prednisolone (10 mg/kg) had reduced the pain responses. The reduced weight gain in the prednisolone group is an unwanted effect due to its metabolic and central actions. Further studies are required to confirm the antinociceptive effects and elucidate the mechanism of antinociceptive action of Tualang honey in the rats.
doi:10.4103/2225-4110.139115
PMCID: PMC4220512  PMID: 25379476
Body weight; Food intake; Prednisolone; Tail flick test; Tualang honey
5.  Effect of Melatonin on Cognitive Function and Sleep in relation to Breast Cancer Surgery: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial 
Background. Sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction are common in patients with breast cancer. Disturbed sleep leads to poor cognitive performance and exogenous melatonin may improve sleep and attenuate cognitive dysfunction. We hypothesized that melatonin would improve sleep and cognitive function after surgery. Methods. This study reports secondary endpoints from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Women, 30–75 years, were randomized to 6mg oral melatonin/placebo for 3 months. We assessed postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) with a neuropsychological test battery, sleep with a diary, and sleep quality with VAS. Results. 54 patients were randomized to melatonin (n = 28) or placebo (n = 26); 11 withdrew (10 placebo, 1 melatonin, P = 0.002). The incidence of POCD was 0% (0/20) [95% CI 0.0%; 16.8%] in the placebo group and 0% (0/26) [95% CI 0.0%; 13.2%] in the melatonin group 2 weeks postoperatively (P = 1.00) and 6.3% (1/16) [95% CI 0.0%; 30.2%] in the placebo group and 0% (0/26) [95% CI 0.0%; 13.2%] in the melatonin group 12 weeks postoperatively (P = 0.38). Sleep efficiency was significantly greater in the melatonin group; mean difference was 4.28% [95% CI 0.57; 7.82] (P = 0.02). The total sleep period was significantly longer in the melatonin group; mean difference was 37.0 min [95% CI 3.6; 69.7] (P = 0.03). Conclusion. Melatonin increased sleep efficiency and total sleep time but did not affect cognitive function. The dropout rate was significantly lower in the melatonin group. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01355523.
doi:10.1155/2014/416531
PMCID: PMC4160608  PMID: 25328711
6.  Kyste épidermoïde géant de la fesse 
doi:10.11604/pamj.2014.18.286.5031
PMCID: PMC4247859  PMID: 25469180
Kyste épidermoïde; fesse; masse; tumeur; epidermoid cyst; buttock; mass; tumor
7.  Double-balloon tamponade in the management of postpartum hemorrhage: a case series 
To show the efficacy of double-balloon cervical ripening catheter in the management of postpartum hemorrhage originating from the lower segment of the uterus or the upper parts of the vagina.
Methods
Patients with intractable bleeding from the lower segment of the uterus and the upper parts of the vagina after Cesarean or vaginal deliveries were treated by double-balloon cervical ripening catheter.
Results
Double-balloon catheter was used in seven patients, and it was properly placed in all of them. No other intervention was needed to control bleeding. Two patients were delivered vaginally, and five patients were delivered by Cesarean section. Length of hospitalization was longer in the vaginal delivery patients (average hospitalization was 12 days in the vaginal delivery patients and 5 days in the Cesarean section patients). The need for blood and blood products transfusion (average of blood and blood products transfusion was 30 U in the vaginal delivery patients and 6 U in the Cesarean patients) was also higher in the vaginal delivery patients.
Conclusion
Although double-balloon cervical ripening catheter is designed for the induction of labor, it can successfully control intractable bleedings from the lower segment of the uterus and the upper parts of the vagina. This procedure can save patients from undergoing more morbid procedures.
doi:10.2147/TCRM.S62574
PMCID: PMC4128843  PMID: 25120367
cesarean section; double-balloon catheter; postpartum hemorrhage; vaginal delivery
8.  An unusual stress fracture: Bilateral posterior longitudinal stress fracture of tibia 
INTRODUCTION
Stress fractures (SF) occur when healthy bone is subjected to cyclic loading, which the normal carrying range capacity is exceeded. Usually, stress fractures occur at the metatarsal bones, calcaneus, proximal or distal tibia and tends to be unilateral.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
This article presents a 58-year-old male patient with bilateral posterior longitudinal tibial stress fractures. A 58 years old male suffering for persistent left calf pain and decreased walking distance for last one month and after imaging studies posterior longitudinal tibial stress fracture was detected on his left tibia. After six months the patient was admitted to our clinic with the same type of complaints in his right leg. All imaging modalities and blood counts were performed and as a result longitudinal posterior tibial stress fractures were detected on his right tibia.
DISCUSSION
Treatment of tibial stress fracture includes rest and modified activity, followed by a graded return to activity commensurate with bony healing. We have applied the same treatment protocol and our results were acceptable but our follow up time short for this reason our study is restricted for separate stress fractures of the posterior tibia.
CONCLUSION
Although the main localization of tibial stress fractures were unilateral, anterior and transverse pattern, rarely, like in our case, the unusual bilateral posterior localization and longitudinal pattern can be seen.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.06.002
PMCID: PMC4147628  PMID: 24995664
Tibial stress fracture; Longitudinal tibial fracture
9.  Local Intracoronary Eptifibatide versus Mechanical Aspiration in Patients with Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction 
Objectives. We compared local delivery of intracoronary eptifibatide via perfusion catheter to thrombus aspiration in primary PCI. Background. Perfusion catheter increases local concentration of the drugs at the culprit site and prolongs their residency time. Methods. 75 patients with acute STEMI were randomized to three groups: 25 received local intracoronary eptifibatide and verapamil via perfusion catheter; 25 patients were managed by Diver CE thrombectomy device and 25 patients by primary PCI without thrombus aspiration. Primary end point was assessment of postprocedural TIMI flow, MPG, and corrected TIMI frame count (cTFC) in the culprit vessel. Results. Perfusion catheter was superior to thrombus aspiration and conventional PCI as regards MBG (68% versus 36% in Diver CE and 20% in the control arm; P value = 0.002), with shorter cTFC rates than thrombectomy and control groups (20.76 ± 4.44 versus 26.68 ± 8.40 and 28.16 ± 5.96, resp.; P = 0.001). TIMI flow was not different between the 3 groups. Eptifibatide led to less time to peak CK (13.12 hours versus 16.5 and 19.5 hours, respectively, P value = 0.001). Conclusion. Local intracoronary eptifibatide by perfusion catheter reduces thrombus burden with better results in microvascular perfusion assessed by cTFC and MBG compared to aspiration device or conventional PCI.
doi:10.1155/2014/294065
PMCID: PMC4060498  PMID: 24987529
10.  Predictive Factors for Natural Pregnancy after Microsurgical Reconstruction in Patients with Primary Epididymal Obstructive Azoospermia 
Primary epididymal obstructive azoospermia (OA) is the most prevalent form of OA in nonvasectomized patients and has been less studied. We aim to assess the results with microsurgical vasoepididymostomy used in the treatment of men diagnosed with primary epididymal obstructive azoospermia and to identify the factors associated with natural pregnancy occurring after microsurgical reconstruction. This prospective study included consecutive patients with epididymal OA who underwent microsurgical reconstruction in our center. Clinical and biological data were obtained every three months during follow-up. Occurrence of natural pregnancy was the primary study outcome. In total, 36 patients underwent microsurgical reconstruction. The mean age was 34 ± 4.5 years (range 24–46 years). Median follow-up time was 15 [IQR 12–21] months. The total patency rate was 77.7% (n = 28). During follow-up, 8 (22.2%) natural pregnancies occurred. The overall live birth rate was 100%. Low FSH levels (HR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.052–0.88; P = 0.032) and higher total motile sperm count (TMSC) (HR: 1.001; 95% CI 1–1.001; P = 0.012) were associated with a higher rate of natural pregnancy. Our data suggest that microsurgical vasoepididymostomy is an effective therapy of primary epididymal OA. Baseline lower FSH and higher TMSC were independent predictors for natural pregnancy occurrence.
doi:10.1155/2014/873527
PMCID: PMC4058594  PMID: 24987417
11.  Prognostic Factors in Tuberculosis Related Mortalities in Hospitalized Patients 
Setting. The study was undertaken at the Department of Pulmonology at a public, tertiary care centre in Karachi, Pakistan. Objectives. To evaluate factors concerned with in-hospital deaths in patients admitted with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Design. A retrospective case-control audit was performed for 120 patients hospitalised with pulmonary TB. Sixty of those discharged after treatment were compared to sixty who did not survive. Radiological findings, clinical indicators, and laboratory values were compared between the two groups to identify factors related to poor prognosis. Results. Factors concerned with in-hospital mortality listed late presentation of disease (P < 0.01), noncompliance to antituberculosis therapy (P < 0.01), smoking (P < 0.01), longer duration of illness prior to treatment (P < 0.01), and low body weight (P < 0.01). Most deaths occurred during the first week of admission (P < 0.01) indicating late referrals as significant. Immunocompromised status and multi-drug resistance were not implicated in higher mortality. Conclusions. Poor prognosis was associated with noncompliance to therapy resulting in longer duration of illness, late patient referrals to care centres, and development of complications. Early diagnosis, timely referrals, and monitored compliance may help reduce mortality. Adherence to a more radically effective treatment regimen is required to eliminate TB early during disease onset.
doi:10.1155/2014/624671
PMCID: PMC4033512  PMID: 24895532
12.  Choroidal neovascularization secondary to Best’s vitelliform macular dystrophy in two siblings of a Malay family 
Best’s vitelliform macular dystrophy complicated with choroidal neovascularization is rare in children. We report three children from a Malay family of five siblings with Best’s vitelliform macular dystrophy, in which two of them subsequently developed choroidal neovascularization. The possible pathogenesis of this rare condition is described and highlighted in this report.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S55623
PMCID: PMC3958546  PMID: 24648718
Best’s vitelliform macula dystrophy; choroidal neovascularization; children; Malay
13.  Effect of Fresh Orange Juice Intake on Physiological Characteristics in Healthy Volunteers 
ISRN Nutrition  2014;2014:405867.
Background. Impaired endothelial function is a predictor of cardiovascular events. Orange juice (OJ) is rich in dietary flavonoids and could inhibit oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. We examined the effects of commercial (COJ) and fresh orange juice (FOJ) on endothelial function and physiological characteristics in healthy humans. Materials and Methods. Twenty-two healthy volunteers years were enrolled in a single blind randomized crossover controlled trial. The two groups consumed either COJ for the first 4 weeks and then FOJ (CFOJ, 4 weeks), or FOJ for the first 4 weeks and then COJ (FCOJ, 4 weeks). We assessed endothelial function by measuring flow-mediated dilation, serum concentrations of lipids, apolipoproteins A and B (apo A-1 and apo B), and inflammatory markers such as vascular endothelial adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and interleukin-6. Results. Consumption of both juices decreased VCAM, hs-CRP, and E-selectin but increased apo A-1. A decline in LDL occurred in the FOJ group. There were no differences between the characteristics of two groups, with the exception of apo A-1 levels that were increased with both forms of OJ. The largest variations occurred with hs-CRP, VCAM in both groups. Conclusion. Consumption of COJ and FOJ produced beneficial effects on the physiological characteristics of healthy volunteers. Although these results could encourage the consumption of OJ, intervention studies are needed to determine the long-term effects of these types of OJ on metabolic and cardiovascular endpoints.
doi:10.1155/2014/405867
PMCID: PMC4045306  PMID: 24967267
14.  A Retrospective Comparison of Conventional versus Transverse Mini-Incision Technique for Carpal Tunnel Release 
ISRN Neurology  2013;2013:721830.
Background. In this retrospective study, we aimed to compare the results of two surgical techniques, conventional and transverse mini-incision. Materials and Methods. 95 patients were operated between 2011 and 2012 in Bitlis State Hospital. 50 patients were operated with conventional technique and 45 of them were operated with minimal transverse incision. Postoperative complications, incision site problems, and the time of starting to use their hands in daily activities were noted. Results. 95 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 48. 87 of them were female and 8 were male. There was no problem of incision site in both of the two surgical techniques. Only in one patient, anesthesia developed in minimal incision technique. The time of starting to use their hands in daily activities was 22,2 days and 17 days in conventional and minimal incision technique, respectively. Conclusion. Two surgical techniques did not show superiority to each other in terms of postoperative complications and incision site problems except the time of starting to use their hands in daily activities.
doi:10.1155/2013/721830
PMCID: PMC3875103  PMID: 24396607
15.  Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery and Venous Hypertension in Early Hemodialysis Patients without Amyloid Deposits 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:481348.
Aim. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of the frequent problems of the patients who underwent hemodialysis (HD). The role of venous hypertension due to arteriovenous fistula (AVF) has not been clarified completely; therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of venous hypertension due to AVF in hemodialysis patients who had CTS. Patients and Methods. We included 12 patients who had been receiving HD treatment for less than 8 years and the newly diagnosed CTS patients with the same arm of AVF. All patients were diagnosed clinically and the results were confirmed by both nerve conduction studies and electromyography. Open carpal tunnel release surgery was performed on all of them. Venous pressure was measured in all patients before and after two weeks of surgery. Results. There were significant differences before and after the surgery with regard to pressures (P > 0.05). After the surgery, all carpal ligament specimens of the patients were not stained with Congo red for the presence of amyloid deposition. Conclusion. Increased venous pressure on the same arm with AVF could be responsible for CTS in hemodialysis patients. Carpal tunnel release surgery is the main treatment of this disease by reducing the compression on the nerve.
doi:10.1155/2013/481348
PMCID: PMC3836390  PMID: 24307871
16.  Using the head as a mould for cranioplasty with methylmethacrylate 
Methacrylate is a valuable tool to the neurosurgeon, even though it is currently being replaced by custom bone. During cranioplasty in the absence of custom bone, which is preformed based on the patients imaging, one has to make a cast to cover the cranial defect with or without the use of a mould. A good artificial skull outline is necessary for prevention of implant extrusion and acceptable cosmetic outcome. Using the patients head as a mould is a simple, cheap, and useful technique. An incision is made, and either a craniectomy or an attempt at skull elevation or separation of the scalp from dura is done based on the indication for the cranioplasty. The methacrylate monomer is mixed with its solvent. It is placed in between a sliced glove and then thinned out. Several layers of drapes are placed on the patients head, the acrylate which is in between the gloves is then placed on the drapes. As soon as it starts setting and the required shape obtained, it is removed and place on the sterile tray. It is then anchored and the wound closed. This technique produces good cosmetic outcome. However, the head must be properly protected from the risk of burns from the exothermic reaction. The technique is described in a 40-year-old driver who had a compound depressed skull fracture. He had a methylmethacrylate cranioplasty in the 9th week post trauma after allowing for wound healing. We recommend that this technique may be used in centers where custom bone is either too expensive or not available during cranioplasty in order to obtain a good outcome.
doi:10.4103/0976-3147.120207
PMCID: PMC3858776  PMID: 24347964
Acrylate; cranial defects; cranioplast; cranioplasty; decompressive craniectomy; mould; head; polymethylmethacrylate
17.  Diagnostic Significance of Serum Eotaxin-1 Level in Gastric Cancer Patients 
Disease markers  2013;35(5):363-367.
Introduction. Gastric cancer is the second cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Delayed diagnosis leads to high mortality rates. Eotaxin-1 was originally discovered as an eosinophil-selective chemoattractant and may play a role in a number of chronic inflammatory diseases, cancer, and other gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to analyse diagnostic and prognostic significance of serum eotaxin-1 (s-eotaxin-1) levels in gastric cancer. Methods. Sixty gastric cancer patients and 69 healthy subjects were included into the study. S-eotaxin-1 levels were compared with clinicopathological features and outcomes in gastric cancer. Results. Serum levels of eotaxin-1 in gastric cancer patients were significantly higher than controls (74.51 ± 16.65 pg/mL versus 16.79 ± 5.52 pg/mL, respectively (P < 0.001)). The s-eotaxin-1 levels did not differ significantly with histopathological grade, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, tumor localization, lymph node metastases, positive lymph node ratio, size, perineural and perivascular invasion. So there is no relationship found between s-eotaxin-1 level and prognosis. Conclusion. S-eotaxin-1 levels may be used as an easily available biomarker for gastric cancer risk and may alert physicians for early diagnosis. Due to the limited number of patients included in this study, larger cohort studies are warranted to validate the diagnostic value of s-eotaxin-1 level in gastric cancer.
doi:10.1155/2013/274515
PMCID: PMC3810232  PMID: 24223454
18.  A retained plastic protective cover mimicking malignancy: Case report☆ 
INTRODUCTION
Cases of retained foreign bodies during surgery are more frequently seen in developing countries. Following surgical procedures, unintentionally retained foreign bodies can cause serious complications, in addition to medico-legal issues.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 60-year-old man presented with abdominal cramps. He had previously undergone a laparoscopic radical right nephrectomy due to renal cell carcinoma. Abdominal tomography revealed a mass surrounding the main vascular structures with malignant features in the location of previously performed nephrectomy. Further evaluation of the mass was undertaken by PET/CT. Increased FDG uptake on the PET/CT scan suggested disease recurrence. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was performed. The dissection specimen was opened to determine the nature of the mass. Retained plastic foreign bodies were found. There were no malignant cells in the histopathological examination of the surgical specimen.
DISCUSSION
A granulomatous reaction which is mainly responsible for morbidity occurs around the foreign bodies due to the inflammatory response. These granulomas may cause confusion during patient follow-up, especially in those who have undergone major abdominal surgery due to cancer.
CONCLUSION
Following surgical resection for malignancy, unintentionally retained foreign bodies can produce a moderate increase in FDG uptake mimicking disease recurrence.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.06.022
PMCID: PMC3860039  PMID: 24240073
Foreing body; Malignancy; Retroperitoneal; Surgery
19.  Platelet Parameters in Hepatic Hydatid Cysts 
Background. Hepatic hydatid cyst infection is caused by microorganisms named Echinococcus which belong to family Taeniidae. Platelets are considered as a mediator in inflammation and infectious diseases because of the various proinflammatory substances that they contain. Design and Methods. Thirty-three patients who were admitted to Doğubayazıt State Hospital's General Surgery Clinic with a diagnosis of hepatic cyst hydatid were enrolled in this retrospective study. Laboratory data of the patients in pre- and postoperative periods were obtained from computerized medical records database of the hospital. Results. Preoperative mean platelet volume (MPV) of the patients was significantly increased compared to postoperative MPV values. Conclusion. We claim that MPV is a useful follow-up marker after surgery in patients with hydatid cyst.
doi:10.1155/2013/593273
PMCID: PMC3678418  PMID: 23781390
20.  Generalized epileptic seizure in an adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patient with syringomyelia after deformity correction surgery 
INTRODUCTION
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and epilepsy are pathologies rarely seen together. In this study we report an AIS case we operated in which epilepsy was seen post operatively. We want to emphasize the items one should pay attention in such cases.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
In a 14-year-old girl with AIS and concomitant syringomyelia and spondylolisthesis, posterior deformity correction and fusion were performed. After stabilization the patient was discharged on the 10th day of discharge epileptic seizure appeared.
DISCUSSION
In scoliosis surgery, the mechanic stress and bleeding caused by the operation itself can cause neurological problems due to primary nervous system injury. The operation and bleeding during and after the operation, pulmonary and cardiac functional instability, metabolic imbalance can be the causes of epileptic seizures.
CONCLUSION
Epilepsy seen after a major surgery like scoliosis surgery, can be either as a result of central nervous system origined vascular and hypoxic problems or metabolic. In our case we concluded that massive hemorrhage must have induced epilepsy. In neurologic consultations the case was considered as an incidental epileptic picture.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.05.008
PMCID: PMC3710894  PMID: 23832169
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Epilepsy; Vertebral posterior instrumentation
21.  Prosthetic metal implants and airport metal detectors 
Introduction
Metal detectors have been present in airports and points of departure for some time. With the introduction of heightened security measures in response to fears of an increased threat of terrorism, they may become more prevalent in other public locations. The aim of this study was to ascertain which prosthetic devices activated metal detector devices used for security purposes.
Methods
A range of prosthetic devices used commonly in orthopaedic and plastic surgery procedures were passed through an arch metal detector at Birmingham Airport in the UK. Additionally, each item was passed under a wand detector. Items tested included expandable breast prostheses, plates used in wrist and hand surgery, screws, K-wires, Autosuture™ ligation clips and staples.
Results
No prostheses were detected by the arch detector. The expandable implants and wrist plates were the only devices detected by passing the wand directly over them. No device was detected by the wand when it was under cover of the axillary soft tissue. Screws, K-wires, Autosuture™ clips and staples were not detected under any of the study conditions.
Conclusions
Although unlikely to trigger a detector, it is possible that an expandable breast prosthesis or larger plate may do so. It is therefore best to warn patients of this so they can anticipate detection and further examination.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13511609955977
PMCID: PMC4165247  PMID: 23827294
Hand implants; Breast implants; Metal detector; Detection
22.  Is the Simple Closure Technique Effective in the Treatment of Genital Fistulas? 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:672540.
Aim. Genitourinary fistulas are bothersome clinical entities not only for the patient but also for the treating surgeon as well. A lot of surgical procedures have been proposed; however, most of the fistulas can be easily treated with plain surgical techniques, such as the simple surgical closure of the fistula tract. Material and Method. The study was carried out in the urogynecology department of Ankara Etlik Zübeyde Hanım Maternity Training and Research Hospital. The study included 12 cases with vesicovaginal fistulas and 15 cases with rectovaginal fistulas. Twenty-six patients underwent simple surgical closure technique. The age, the referral time to the hospital, the longest diameter of the fistula opening, the hospitalization time, the follow-up period and identifiable risk factors of the patients were evaluated. Results. Caeserean section was detected as primary risk factor for vesicovaginal fistulas and prolonged labor was detected as the most important risk factor for rectovaginal fistulas. In our study, we found that the simple closure technique cured 91% of vesicovaginal fistulas and 93% of rectovaginal fistulas. Conclusion. The simple closure technique has very high cure rates for both vesicovaginal and rectovaginal fistulas when the longest diameter of the fistula openings is ≤5 mm.
doi:10.1155/2013/672540
PMCID: PMC3586520  PMID: 23476795
23.  The Effect of Metabolic Syndrome upon the Success of Varicocelectomy 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:985201.
We aimed to investigate the impact of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on the varicocele treatment. 101 patients underwent spermatic vein ligation between 2007 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Those patients were divided into two groups as without (n: 56, Group 1) or with MetS (n: 48, Group 2). All the patients underwent left microsurgical subinguinal spermatic vein ligation. Groups were compared by the improvement on sperm parameters and spontaneous pregnancy rates at a mean of 19 (±4) months followup. When sperm parameters were compared postoperatively, the significant improvement in total sperm count, motile sperm count percentage, and normal sperm percentage was reported. The groups were compared to each other and the improvement seemed significantly better in Group 1. There was no statistically significant improvement difference in the normal sperm percentage between groups. Spontaneous pregnancy rate after two years was 45% in Group 1 and 34% in Group 2 (P < 0.05). Patients with MetS and varicocele improved after surgery, but not as well as the similar group without MetS. This may help to show that MetS can be a factor for male infertility.
doi:10.1100/2012/985201
PMCID: PMC3541564  PMID: 23326218
25.  SASLT Practice Guidelines: Management of Hepatitis C Virus Infection 
doi:10.4103/1319-3767.101155
PMCID: PMC3713589  PMID: 23006491
Hepatitis C; prevalence; fibrosis; histology; treatment; pegylated interferon; direct acting antiviral; response

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