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1.  REGION-SPECIFIC NEURON AND SYNAPSE LOSS IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF APPSL/PS1 KNOCK-IN MICE 
Translational neuroscience  2013;4(1):8-19.
Transgenic mouse models with knock-in (KI) expression of human mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) and/or human presenilin 1 (PS1) may be helpful to elucidate the cellular consequences of APP and PS1 misprocessing in the aging brain. Age-related alterations in total numbers of neurons and in numbers of synaptophysin-immunoreactive presynaptic boutons (SIPB), as well as the amyloid plaque load were analyzed in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), CA3, and CA1–2 of 2- and 10-month-old APPSL/PS1 homozygous KI, APPSL (expressing human mutant APP751 carrying the Swedish [K670N/M671L] and London [V717I] mutations under Thy-1 promoter), and PS1 homozygous KI mice (expressing human PS1 mutations [M233T and L235P]). APPSL/PS1 homozygous KI mice, but neither APPSL mice nor PS1 homozygous KI mice, showed substantial age-related loss of neurons (−47.2%) and SIPB (−22.6%), specifically in CA1–2. PS1 homozygous KI mice showed an age-related increase in hippocampal granule cell numbers (+37.9%). Loss of neurons and SIPB greatly exceeded the amount of local extracellular Aβ aggregation and astrocytes, whereas region-specific accumulation of intraneuronal Aβ preceded neuron and synapse loss. An age-related increase in the ratio of SIPB to neuron numbers in CA1–2 of APPSL/PS1 homozygous KI mice was suggestive of compensatory synaptic plasticity. These findings indicate a region-selectivity in intra- and extraneuronal Aβ accumulation in connection with neuron and synapse loss in the hippocampus of APPSL/PS1 homozygous KI mice.
doi:10.2478/s13380-013-0111-8
PMCID: PMC4018205  PMID: 24829793
Alzheimer’s disease; Amyloid precursor protein; Neuron loss; Synapse loss; Hippocampus; Presenilin-1; Stereology; Image analysis
2.  Comparison of two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for cerebrospinal fluid measurement of amyloid β1-42 and total tau 
Translational neuroscience  2013;4(2):10.2478/s13380-013-0123-4.
Amyloid β1-42 (Aβ1-42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) are the main cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Detection of AD is critically important in view of the growing number of potential new drugs that may influence the course of the disease in its early phases. However, cut-off levels for these CSF biomarkers have not yet been established. Variability in absolute concentrations of AD biomarkers is high among studies and significant differences were noticed even within the same datasets. Variability in biomarkers levels in these assays may be due to many aspects of operating procedures. Standardization of pre-analytical and analytical procedures in collection, treatment, and storage of CSF samples is crucial because differences in sample handling can drastically influence results. Multicenter studies showed that usage of ELISA kits from different manufacturers also affects outcome. So far only very few studies tested the efficiency of ELISA kits produced by different vendors. In this study, the performance of Innogenetics (Gent, Belgium) and Invitrogen (Camarillo, CA, USA) ELISA kits for t-tau and Aβ1-42 was tested. Passing-Bablok analysis showed significant differences between Invitrogen and Innogenetics ELISA methods, making it impossible to use them interchangeably.
doi:10.2478/s13380-013-0123-4
PMCID: PMC3873720  PMID: 24376914
Alzheimer’s disease; Amyloid β1-42; Biomarkers; Cerebrospinal fluid; ELISA; Standardization; Tau proteins
3.  RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN NEUROPATHOLOGY OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS 
Translational neuroscience  2011;2(3):256-264.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent complex neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in reciprocal social interactions, abnormal development and use of language, and monotonously repetitive behaviors. With an estimated heritability of more than 90%, it is the most strongly genetically influenced psychiatric disorder of the young age. In spite of the complexity of this disorder, there has recently been much progress in the research on etiology, early diagnosing, and therapy of autism. Besides already advanced neuropathologic research, several new technological innovations, such as sleep functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (1H-MRS) divulged promising breakthroughs in exploring subtle morphological and neurochemical changes in the autistic brain. This review provides a comprehensive summary of morphological and neurochemical alterations in autism known to date, as well as a short introduction to the functional research that has begun to advance in the last decade. Finally, we mention the progress in establishing new standardized diagnostic measures and its importance in early recognition and treatment of ASD.
PMCID: PMC3237008  PMID: 22180840
Autism; Autism spectrum disorder
4.  PERIPHERAL MYELIN PROTEIN-22 IS EXPRESSED IN CNS MYELIN 
Translational neuroscience  2010;1(4):282-285.
Myelin abnormalities exist in schizophrenia leading to the hypothesis that oligodendrocyte dysfunction plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease. The expression of the mRNA for the peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP-22) is decreased in schizophrenia and recent genetic evidence suggests a link between PMP-22 and schizophrenia. While PMP-22 mRNA is found in both rodent and human brain it has been generally thought that no protein expression occurs. Here we show that PMP-22 protein is present in myelin isolated from adult mouse and human brain. These results suggest that PMP-22 protein likely plays a role in the maintenance and function of central nervous system (CNS) myelin and provide an explanation for why altered PMP-22 expression may be pathophysiologically relevant in a CNS disorder such as schizophrenia.
doi:10.2478/v10134-010-0038-3
PMCID: PMC3093192  PMID: 21572910
Myelin; Peripheral myelin protein-22; Schizophrenia
5.  CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AFFECT HIPPOCAMPAL MICROVASCULATURE IN EARLY AD 
Translational neuroscience  2010;1(4):292-299.
There is growing clinical and neuropathologic evidence suggesting that cognitive decline in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is aggravated by a synergistic relationship between AD and cerebrovascular disease associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes and hypertension. Here we used the stereologic “Space Balls” method to investigate the relationships between AD pathology and cardiovascular risk factors in postmortem human brains of patients with hypertension and diabetes in two groups – one consisting of cases with AD diagnosis and one of cases without. Hippocampal CA1 and CA3 microvasculature length density estimates were generated to characterize quantitatively the contribution of cardiovascular risk factors to the severity of neuropathologic changes. Our main finding is that the mean and variance of length density values in the AD group were significantly increased from the non-AD group, regardless of the absence or presence of a cardiovascular risk factor. An additional finding is that in the AD group without a risk factor, dementia severity correlated with amount of length density change in the CA1 field—this correlation did not exist in the AD groups with risk factors. Our findings suggest a role for cardiovascular risk factors in quantifiable change of hippocampal CA1 field microvasculature, as well as suggest a possible role of cardiovascular risk factors in altering microvasculature pathology in the presence of AD.
PMCID: PMC3039302  PMID: 21331351
Stereology; Space Balls; Cardiovascular risk factors; CA1; CA3; Alzheimer’s disease

Results 1-5 (5)