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1.  The optimal number of initial prostate biopsy cores in daily practice: a prospective study using the Nara Urological Research and Treatment Group nomogram 
BMC Research Notes  2015;8:689.
Background
To elucidate the optimal number of prostate biopsy cores using a nomogram allocating 6–12 biopsy cores, the number generally used in daily practice, based on age and prostate volume (PV).
Methods
We enrolled 936 patients who received an initial prostate biopsy from April 2006 to January 2009. A number of 6–12 biopsy cores was allocated based on age and PV Nara Urological Research and Treatment Group (NURTG) nomogram. To elucidate the predictive parameters of cancer detection in patients with a prostate specific antigen (PSA) value in the gray zone, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out.
Results
The total cancer detection rate and the cancer detection rate in the PSA gray zone (4.1–10.0 ng/mL) were 48.0 and 37.6 %, respectively. The cancer detection rates in the gray zone stratified by patient age of ≤59, 60–64, 65–69, 70–74, 75–79, and ≥80 years were 28.4, 35.0, 26.9, 37.9, 45.7, and 54.8 %, respectively. The significant predictive parameters of cancer detection in the gray zone were age, volume biopsy ratio (VBR: PV divided by number of biopsy cores), PSA density (PSAD), digital rectal examination findings, and transrectal ultrasound findings in univariate analyses. Finally, age, VBR, and PSAD were independent parameters to predict cancer detection in the gray zone. The adverse event profile was acceptable.
Conclusions
Our present study revealed that the cancer detection rate using the NURTG nomogram allocating 6–12 biopsy cores, the number generally used in daily practice, based on age and PV, could provide similar efficacy as previous studies involving more biopsy cores. In older patients the number of biopsy cores could be reduced.
doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1668-9
PMCID: PMC4652389  PMID: 26581414
Prostate cancer; Prostate biopsy; Prostate volume; Volume biopsy ratio; Prospective study
2.  The primary therapy chosen for patients with localized prostate cancer between the university hospital and its affiliated hospitals in Nara Uro-oncological research group registration 
BMC Urology  2011;11:6.
Background
We investigated the differences between the preferential primary therapy conceived by the primary doctors and the primary therapy actually conducted for prostate cancer patients in Nara, Japan.
Methods
The distribution of primary therapy and clinical characteristics of 2303 prostate cancer patients - diagnosed between 2004 and 2006 at Nara Medical University and its 23 affiliated hospitals - were assessed. Moreover, the preferential primary therapy for the patients at each clinical stage (cT1-T3bN0M0) conceived by the primary doctors was investigated and compared to the actual therapy.
Results
Of all patients, 51% received primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT), 30% underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), and 14% received radiation therapy (RT). The preferential primary therapy for cT1-2N0M0 was RP (92%) while 38% of the patients actually received PADT (RP: 40%). For cT3aN0M0, the preferential primary therapy was both RP and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) while 58% of the patients actually received PADT (RP: 16%, EBRT: 24%). For cT3bN0M0, the most preferential primary therapy was EBRT (46%) while 67% of the patients actually received PADT (EBRT: 21%). This trend was more notable in the affiliated hospitals than in the University hospital. The hospitals with lower volume of RP per year significantly conducted PADT compared with those with higher volume of RP.
Conclusions
PADT was commonly used to treat localized prostate cancer as well as locally advanced prostate cancer in Japan. There was a definite discrepancy between the preferential primary therapy conceived by the primary doctors and the actual therapy provided to the patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-11-6
PMCID: PMC3095576  PMID: 21524283

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