PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-6 (6)
 

Clipboard (0)
None
Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Periodical assessment of genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity in patients who underwent prostate low-dose-rate brachytherapy 
Background
To compare the periodical incidence rates of genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in patients who underwent prostate low-dose-rate brachytherapy between the monotherapy group (seed implantation alone) and the boost group (in combination with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT)).
Methods
A total of 218 patients with a median follow-up of 42.5 months were enrolled. The patients were divided into 2 groups by treatment modality, namely, the monotherapy group (155 patients) and the boost group (63 patients). The periodical incidence rates of GU and GI toxicity were separately evaluated and compared between the monotherapy group and the boost group using the National Cancer Institute - Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. To elucidate an independent factor among clinical and postdosimetric parameters to predict grade 2 or higher GU and GI toxicity in the acute and late phases, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out.
Results
Of all patients, 78.0% showed acute GU toxicity, and 7.8% showed acute GI toxicity, while 63.8% showed late GU toxicity, and 21.1% showed late GI toxicity. The incidence rates of late GU and GI toxicity were significantly higher in the boost group. Multivariate analysis showed that the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) before seed implantation was a significant parameter to predict acute GU toxicity, while there were no significant predictive parameters for acute GI toxicity. On the other hand, combination with EBRT was a significant predictive parameter for late GU toxicity, and rectal volume (mL) receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (R100) was a significant predictive parameter for late GI toxicity.
Conclusions
The boost group showed higher incidence rates of both GU and GI toxicity. Higher IPSS before seed implantation, combination with EBRT and a higher R100 were significant predictors for acute GU, late GU and late GI toxicity.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-8-25
PMCID: PMC3570431  PMID: 23363647
Prostate cancer; LDR-brachytherapy; GU toxicity; GI toxicity
2.  Inhibition of COX-2 expression by topical diclofenac enhanced radiation sensitivity via enhancement of TRAIL in human prostate adenocarcinoma xenograft model 
BMC Urology  2013;13:1.
Background
COX-2 inhibitors have an antitumor potential and have been verified by many researchers. Treatment of cancer cells with external stressors such as irradiation can stimulate the over-expression of COX-2 and possibly confer radiation resistance. In this study, we tested if topical diclofenac, which inhibits both COX-1 and COX-2, administration rendered prostate tumor cells sensitize to the effects of radiation.
Methods
LNCaP-COX-2 and LNCaP-Neo cells were treated with 0 to 1000 μM diclofenac. Next, a clonogenic assay was performed in which cells were subjected to irradiation (0 to 4 Gy) with or without diclofenac. COX-2 expression and other relevant molecules were measured by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry after irradiation and diclofenac treatment. In addition, we assessed the tumor volumes of xenograft LNCaP-COX-2 cells treated with topical diclofenac with or without radiation therapy (RT).
Results
LNCaP-COX-2 and LNCaP-Neo cell lines experienced cytotoxic effects of diclofenac in a dose related manner. Clonogenic assays demonstrated that LNCaP-COX-2 cells were significantly more resistant to RT than LNCaP-Neo cells. Furthermore, the addition of diclofenac sensitized LNCaP-COX-2 not but LNCaP-Neo cells to the cytocidal effects of radiation. In LNCaP-COX-2 cells, diclofenac enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis compared with RT alone. This phenomenon might be attributed to enhancement of RT-induced TRAIL expression as demonstrated by real-time PCR analysis. Lastly, tumor volumes of LNCaP-COX-2 cells xenograft treated with diclofenac or RT alone was >4-fold higher than in mice treated with combined diclofenac and radiation (p<0.05).
Conclusions
These in vitro and in vivo findings suggest that conventional COX inhibitor, diclofenac enhances the effect of RT on prostate cancer cells that express COX-2. Thus, diclofenac may have potential as radiosensitizer for treatment of prostate cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-13-1
PMCID: PMC3561196  PMID: 23289871
Prostate cancer; Radiation therapy; COX-2; TRAIL; Apoptosis; Topical therapy; Radiosensitizer; Diclofenac; Radioresistance
3.  Improvement of the surgical curability of locally confined prostate cancer including non-organ-confined high-risk disease through retropubic radical prostatectomy with intentional wide resection 
Background
Retropubic radical prostatectomy with intentional wide resection (RRP-WR), which enables clear location of the prostate apex and the performance of posterolateral wider resection to remove extraprostatic extension, was introduced to our institutions. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility and the efficacy of RRP-WR as a surgical intervention for locally confined prostate cancer.
Methods
A total of 90 Japanese patients with pathologically proven and clinically locally confined hormone-naïve prostate cancer were treated through RRP-WR, and the surgical morbidity was assessed. The patients were observed without immediate treatment until biochemical recurrence (BCR).
Results
The surgical morbidities were comparable to conventional procedures. No positive surgical margin (pSM) was pathologically identified in pT2 cases from prostatectomy specimens. It was identified in only 14.3% of pT3a cases, 36.4% of pT3b cases and 100% of pT4 cases. No apical pSM was found except for one of the pT4 cases in the levator ani muscle. PSA was at an undetectable level in 80.0% of all cases, 90.0% of pT2 cases, and 67.5% of pT3 and pT4 cases after surgery. The BCR-free survival rate in all cases was 82.4% and that of high-risk cases without pSM was 76.9% at a median follow-up of 19.3 months (3.3 to 59.2).
Conclusions
RRP-WR is feasible and effective in removing organ-confined prostate cancer as well as extraprostatic extension without pSM. Thus, it is worthwhile to evaluate if this procedure improves the clinical outcome of locally confined prostate cancer including high-risk conditions treated by surgical intervention.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-10-249
PMCID: PMC3523069  PMID: 23158926
Prostate; Neoplasms; Prostatectomy
4.  Minimal percentage of dose received by 90% of the urethra (%UD90) is the most significant predictor of PSA bounce in patients who underwent low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-brachytherapy) for prostate cancer 
BMC Urology  2012;12:28.
Background
To clarify the significant clinicopathological and postdosimetric parameters to predict PSA bounce in patients who underwent low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-brachytherapy) for prostate cancer.
Methods
We studied 200 consecutive patients who received LDR-brachytherapy between July 2004 and November 2008. Of them, 137 patients did not receive neoadjuvant or adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy. One hundred and forty-two patients were treated with LDR-brachytherapy alone, and 58 were treated with LDR-brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiation therapy. The cut-off value of PSA bounce was 0.1 ng/mL. The incidence, time, height, and duration of PSA bounce were investigated. Clinicopathological and postdosimetric parameters were evaluated to elucidate independent factors to predict PSA bounce in hormone-naïve patients who underwent LDR-brachytherapy alone.
Results
Fifty patients (25%) showed PSA bounce and 10 patients (5%) showed PSA failure. The median time, height, and duration of PSA bounce were 17 months, 0.29 ng/mL, and 7.0 months, respectively. In 103 hormone-naïve patients treated with LDR-brachytherapy alone, and univariate Cox proportional regression hazard model indicated that age and minimal percentage of the dose received by 30% and 90% of the urethra were independent predictors of PSA bounce. With a multivariate Cox proportional regression hazard model, minimal percentage of the dose received by 90% of the urethra was the most significant parameter of PSA bounce.
Conclusions
Minimal percentage of the dose received by 90% of the urethra was the most significant predictor of PSA bounce in hormone-naïve patients treated with LDR-brachytherapy alone.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-28
PMCID: PMC3487947  PMID: 22974428
Prostate cancer; Brachytherapy; PSA bounce; Post-dosimetry; UD90 (%)
5.  Calculated Tumor Volume Is an Independent Predictor of Biochemical Recurrence in Patients Who Underwent Retropubic Radical Prostatectomy 
Advances in Urology  2012;2012:204215.
Purpose. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the clinicopathological biopsy findings can predict the oncological outcome in patients who undergo radical prostatectomy. Materials and Methods. Between January 1997 and March 2006, 255 patients with clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate (clinical T1-3N0M0) who had undergone retropubic radical prostatectomy were enrolled in this study. None of the patients received neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. Clinicopathological parameters were assessed to determine a predictive parameter of biochemical recurrence. Results. Of the total 255 patients, 77 showed biochemical recurrence during the follow-up period. The estimated 5-year overall survival, 5-year cause-specific survival, and 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival rates were 97.7%, 99.5%, and 67.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model showed that calculated cancer volume was an independent predictor among the preoperative clinicopathological parameters (P < 0.05). SVI and PSM were independent predictors among the postoperative parameters (SVI; P < 0.001, PSM; P = 0.049). Among the significant preoperative and postoperative parameters, calculated cancer volume remained an independent predictive parameter in multivariate analysis (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Tumor volume, as calculated by preoperative parameters, is an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence in patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy.
doi:10.1155/2012/204215
PMCID: PMC3359669  PMID: 22654901
6.  The primary therapy chosen for patients with localized prostate cancer between the university hospital and its affiliated hospitals in Nara Uro-oncological research group registration 
BMC Urology  2011;11:6.
Background
We investigated the differences between the preferential primary therapy conceived by the primary doctors and the primary therapy actually conducted for prostate cancer patients in Nara, Japan.
Methods
The distribution of primary therapy and clinical characteristics of 2303 prostate cancer patients - diagnosed between 2004 and 2006 at Nara Medical University and its 23 affiliated hospitals - were assessed. Moreover, the preferential primary therapy for the patients at each clinical stage (cT1-T3bN0M0) conceived by the primary doctors was investigated and compared to the actual therapy.
Results
Of all patients, 51% received primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT), 30% underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), and 14% received radiation therapy (RT). The preferential primary therapy for cT1-2N0M0 was RP (92%) while 38% of the patients actually received PADT (RP: 40%). For cT3aN0M0, the preferential primary therapy was both RP and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) while 58% of the patients actually received PADT (RP: 16%, EBRT: 24%). For cT3bN0M0, the most preferential primary therapy was EBRT (46%) while 67% of the patients actually received PADT (EBRT: 21%). This trend was more notable in the affiliated hospitals than in the University hospital. The hospitals with lower volume of RP per year significantly conducted PADT compared with those with higher volume of RP.
Conclusions
PADT was commonly used to treat localized prostate cancer as well as locally advanced prostate cancer in Japan. There was a definite discrepancy between the preferential primary therapy conceived by the primary doctors and the actual therapy provided to the patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-11-6
PMCID: PMC3095576  PMID: 21524283

Results 1-6 (6)