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1.  The optimal number of initial prostate biopsy cores in daily practice: a prospective study using the Nara Urological Research and Treatment Group nomogram 
BMC Research Notes  2015;8:689.
To elucidate the optimal number of prostate biopsy cores using a nomogram allocating 6–12 biopsy cores, the number generally used in daily practice, based on age and prostate volume (PV).
We enrolled 936 patients who received an initial prostate biopsy from April 2006 to January 2009. A number of 6–12 biopsy cores was allocated based on age and PV Nara Urological Research and Treatment Group (NURTG) nomogram. To elucidate the predictive parameters of cancer detection in patients with a prostate specific antigen (PSA) value in the gray zone, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out.
The total cancer detection rate and the cancer detection rate in the PSA gray zone (4.1–10.0 ng/mL) were 48.0 and 37.6 %, respectively. The cancer detection rates in the gray zone stratified by patient age of ≤59, 60–64, 65–69, 70–74, 75–79, and ≥80 years were 28.4, 35.0, 26.9, 37.9, 45.7, and 54.8 %, respectively. The significant predictive parameters of cancer detection in the gray zone were age, volume biopsy ratio (VBR: PV divided by number of biopsy cores), PSA density (PSAD), digital rectal examination findings, and transrectal ultrasound findings in univariate analyses. Finally, age, VBR, and PSAD were independent parameters to predict cancer detection in the gray zone. The adverse event profile was acceptable.
Our present study revealed that the cancer detection rate using the NURTG nomogram allocating 6–12 biopsy cores, the number generally used in daily practice, based on age and PV, could provide similar efficacy as previous studies involving more biopsy cores. In older patients the number of biopsy cores could be reduced.
PMCID: PMC4652389  PMID: 26581414
Prostate cancer; Prostate biopsy; Prostate volume; Volume biopsy ratio; Prospective study
2.  Trends of risk classification and primary therapy for Japanese patients with prostate cancer in Nara Uro-Oncological Research Group (NUORG)–a comparison between 2004-2006 and 2007-2009 
BMC Cancer  2013;13:588.
To assess the trends of risk classification and primary therapy in Japanese patients who were diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2004-2006 and 2007-2009.
A total of 4752 patients who were newly diagnosed with prostate cancer at Nara Medical University and its 23 affiliated hospitals between 2004 and 2009 were enrolled. The differences in risk classification and primary therapy were compared in patients who were newly diagnosed between 2004-2006 (prior period) and 2007-2009 (latter period).
The proportion of patients with a high or greater risk significantly decreased in the latter period compared to the prior period (p < 0.001). The proportion of primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT) was 50% in the prior period, and 40% in the latter period. On the other hand, the proportion of radiation therapy was 14% in the prior period, but 24% in the latter period. The proportion of radical prostatectomy was the same in the two periods (30%). The primary therapy was significantly different between the two periods (p < 0.001).
Higher risk patients significantly decreased in the latter period compared to the prior period. The use of PADT also significantly decreased in the latter period. However, there were still higher risk patients in Japan, and the use of PADT was still common in patients with localized prostate cancer or locally advanced prostate cancer in Japan.
PMCID: PMC4028809  PMID: 24325407
Primary therapy; Primary androgen deprivation therapy; Radical prostatectomy; Radiation therapy; Risk classification; Active surveillance
3.  Improvement of the surgical curability of locally confined prostate cancer including non-organ-confined high-risk disease through retropubic radical prostatectomy with intentional wide resection 
Retropubic radical prostatectomy with intentional wide resection (RRP-WR), which enables clear location of the prostate apex and the performance of posterolateral wider resection to remove extraprostatic extension, was introduced to our institutions. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility and the efficacy of RRP-WR as a surgical intervention for locally confined prostate cancer.
A total of 90 Japanese patients with pathologically proven and clinically locally confined hormone-naïve prostate cancer were treated through RRP-WR, and the surgical morbidity was assessed. The patients were observed without immediate treatment until biochemical recurrence (BCR).
The surgical morbidities were comparable to conventional procedures. No positive surgical margin (pSM) was pathologically identified in pT2 cases from prostatectomy specimens. It was identified in only 14.3% of pT3a cases, 36.4% of pT3b cases and 100% of pT4 cases. No apical pSM was found except for one of the pT4 cases in the levator ani muscle. PSA was at an undetectable level in 80.0% of all cases, 90.0% of pT2 cases, and 67.5% of pT3 and pT4 cases after surgery. The BCR-free survival rate in all cases was 82.4% and that of high-risk cases without pSM was 76.9% at a median follow-up of 19.3 months (3.3 to 59.2).
RRP-WR is feasible and effective in removing organ-confined prostate cancer as well as extraprostatic extension without pSM. Thus, it is worthwhile to evaluate if this procedure improves the clinical outcome of locally confined prostate cancer including high-risk conditions treated by surgical intervention.
PMCID: PMC3523069  PMID: 23158926
Prostate; Neoplasms; Prostatectomy
4.  Calculated Tumor Volume Is an Independent Predictor of Biochemical Recurrence in Patients Who Underwent Retropubic Radical Prostatectomy 
Advances in Urology  2012;2012:204215.
Purpose. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the clinicopathological biopsy findings can predict the oncological outcome in patients who undergo radical prostatectomy. Materials and Methods. Between January 1997 and March 2006, 255 patients with clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate (clinical T1-3N0M0) who had undergone retropubic radical prostatectomy were enrolled in this study. None of the patients received neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. Clinicopathological parameters were assessed to determine a predictive parameter of biochemical recurrence. Results. Of the total 255 patients, 77 showed biochemical recurrence during the follow-up period. The estimated 5-year overall survival, 5-year cause-specific survival, and 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival rates were 97.7%, 99.5%, and 67.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model showed that calculated cancer volume was an independent predictor among the preoperative clinicopathological parameters (P < 0.05). SVI and PSM were independent predictors among the postoperative parameters (SVI; P < 0.001, PSM; P = 0.049). Among the significant preoperative and postoperative parameters, calculated cancer volume remained an independent predictive parameter in multivariate analysis (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Tumor volume, as calculated by preoperative parameters, is an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence in patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy.
PMCID: PMC3359669  PMID: 22654901

Results 1-4 (4)