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1.  Predictors of Dropout from Psychosocial Treatment in Opioid-Dependent Outpatients 
Background and Objectives
Early dropout is common in substance abuse treatment settings and may lead to poorer outcomes relative to those completing a full course of treatment. Attempts to identify predictors of dropout have yielded mixed results, highlighting the need for additional research in this area to clarify risk and protective factors to guide intervention and retention efforts. This study evaluated predictors of dropout from psychosocial treatment among opioid-dependent patients on methadone maintenance therapy.
Methods
Participants included 78 patients who had failed to respond to at least 4 months of methadone maintenance plus group counseling with clinic substance abuse counselors, and were enrolled in a study of randomized psychosocial treatment in addition to treatment-as-usual. Several factors that have been implicated in previous studies as well as two affective variables (distress intolerance and coping motives for drug use) were examined.
Results
Results indicated that when controlling for various risk factors, age was the only significant predictor of dropout, with younger patients more likely to discontinue treatment early.
Conclusions
This study replicates previous findings in opioid-dependent samples that younger patients are at an increased risk of early treatment dropout.
Conclusions and Significance
Targeted intervention may be needed to retain young patients in drug abuse treatment.
doi:10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.00317.x
PMCID: PMC3651588  PMID: 23398222
2.  Shared Variance among Self-Report and Behavioral Measures of Distress Intolerance 
Cognitive therapy and research  2011;35(3):266-275.
Distress intolerance may be an important individual difference variable in understanding maladaptive coping responses across diagnostic categories. However, the measurement of distress intolerance remains inconsistent across studies and little evidence for convergent validity among existing measures is available. This study evaluated the overlap among self-report and behavioral measures of distress intolerance in four samples, including an unselected sample, a sample of patients with drug dependence, and two samples of cigarette smokers. Results suggested that the self-report measures were highly correlated, as were the behavioral measures; however, behavioral and self-report measures did not exhibit significant associations with each other. There was some evidence of domain specificity, with anxiety sensitivity demonstrating strong associations with somatic distress intolerance, and a lack of association between behavioral measures that elicit affective distress and those that elicit somatic distress. These findings highlight a potential divergence in the literature relative to the conceptualization of distress intolerance as either sensitivity to distress or as the inability to persist at a task when distressed. Further research is needed to elucidate the conceptualization and measurement of distress intolerance to facilitate future clinical and research applications of this construct.
doi:10.1007/s10608-010-9295-1
PMCID: PMC3721199  PMID: 23894216
Distress Intolerance; Measurement; Task Persistence; Anxiety Sensitivity
3.  Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders 
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders has demonstrated efficacy as both a monotherapy and as part of combination treatment strategies. This article provides a review of the evidence supporting the use of CBT, clinical elements of its application, novel treatment strategies for improving treatment response, and dissemination efforts. Although CBT for substance abuse is characterized by heterogeneous treatment elements—such as operant learning strategies, cognitive and motivational elements, and skills building interventions—across protocols several core elements emerge that focus on overcoming the powerfully reinforcing effects of psychoactive substances. These elements, and support for their efficacy, are discussed.
doi:10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.012
PMCID: PMC2897895  PMID: 20599130
Substance Use Disorders; Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; Contingency Management; Relapse Prevention; Motivational Interviewing

Results 1-3 (3)