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1.  The Relationship between Perchlorate in Drinking Water and Cord Blood Thyroid Hormones: First Experience from Iran 
Background:
Considering the controversial information regarding the effects of perchlorate on thyroid function of high risk population as neonates, and given the high prevalence rate of thyroid disorders specially congenital hypothyroidism in our region, this study aims to investigate for the first time in Iran, the relationship between drinking groundwater perchlorate and cord blood thyroid hormones level in an industrial region.
Methods:
In this cross-sectional study, drinking groundwater perchlorate level of rural areas of Zarinshahr, Isfahan was measured. Simultaneously, cord blood level of thyroid hormones of neonates born in the studied region was measured. Thyroid function test of neonates in regions with low and high perchlorate level were compared.
Results:
In this study, 25 tap water samples were obtained for perchlorate measurement. Level of cord blood thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), T4 and T3 of 25 neonates were measured. Mean (standard deviation) of perchlorate, TSH, T4 and T3 was 3.59 (5.10) μg/l, 7.81 (4.14) mIU/m, 6.06 (0.85) mg/dl, and 63.46 (17.53) mg/dl, respectively. Mean levels of thyroid function tests were not different in low (<5 μg/l) and high level of drinking ground water perchlorate (P > 0.05).
Conclusions:
Perchlorate did not appear to be related to thyroid function of neonates in the studied industrial region. It seems that iodine status of the regions, as well as other environmental contaminants and genetic background, could impact on its relation with thyroid function of neonates.
doi:10.4103/2008-7802.151826
PMCID: PMC4362289  PMID: 25789149
Environment; infant; perchlorate; thyroid gland
2.  Acute and long term effects of grape and pomegranate juice consumption on endothelial dysfunction in pediatric metabolic syndrome 
BACKGROUND:
This study aimed to determine the short- and long-term effects of consumption of grape and pomegranate juices on markers of endothelial function and inflammation in adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
METHODS:
In a non-pharmacologic randomized controlled trial, 30 individuals were randomly assigned to two groups of drinking natural grape or pomegranate juice for 1 month. Measurements of inflammatory factors [Hs-CRP, sE-selectin, sICAM-1, sVCAM, and interleukin 6 (IL-6)] and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were made at baseline, 4 hours after first juice consumption and after one month of juice consumption.
RESULTS:
The percent changes of FMD were significant in both groups in the short- and long-term. Hs-CRP had a nonsignificant decrease. sE selectin had a significant decrease after 4 hours in total and in the pomegranate juice group, followed by a significant decrease after 1 month in both groups. After 4 hours, sICAM-1 significantly decreased in the pomegranate juice group, and after 1 month it decreased in total and pomegranate juice group. Interleulkin-6 (IL-6) had a significant constant decrease at 4-hour and 1-month measurements after drinking pomegranate juice, and in both groups after 1 month. Significant negative correlations of changes in sICAM-1 and sE-selectin with changes in FMD were found in both periods of follow-up; and at 1 month for IL-6.
CONCLUSIONS:
Decline in inflammation was associated with improvement in FMD without changes in conventional risk factors. Daily consumption of natural antioxidants may improve endothelial function in adolescents with MetS.
PMCID: PMC3214329  PMID: 22091240
Endothelium function; metabolic syndrome; antioxidants; inflammation; adolescents

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