Pathogenesis-related proteins play multiple roles in plant development and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we characterize a rice defense related gene named “jasmonic acid inducible pathogenesis-related class 10” (JIOsPR10) to gain an insight into its functional properties. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed up-regulation of JIOsPR10 under salt and drought stress conditions. Constitutive over-expression JIOsPR10 in rice promoted shoot and root development in transgenic plants, however, their productivity was unaltered. Further experiments exhibited that the transgenic plants showed reduced susceptibility to rice blast fungus, and enhanced salt and drought stress tolerance as compared to the wild type. A comparative proteomic profiling of wild type and transgenic plants showed that overexpression of JIOsPR10 led to the differential modulation of several proteins mainly related with oxidative stresses, carbohydrate metabolism, and plant defense. Taken together, our findings suggest that JIOsPR10 plays important roles in biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance probably by activation of stress related proteins.
abiotic stress; JIOsPR10; Magnaporthe oryzae; proteomics; rice
Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating fungal diseases of rice and results in a huge loss of rice productivity worldwide. During the infection process, M. oryzae secretes a large number of glycosyl hydrolase proteins into the host apoplast to digest the cell wall and facilitate fungal ingression into host tissues. In this study, we identified a novel arabinofuranosidase-B (MoAbfB) protein that is secreted by M. oryzae during fungal infection. Deletion of MoAbfB from M. oryzae resulted in reduced disease severity in rice. Biochemical assays revealed that the MoAbfB protein exhibited arabinofuranosidase activity and caused degradation of rice cell wall components. Interestingly, pre-treatment of rice with the MoAbfB protein inhibited fungal infection by priming defence gene expression. Our findings suggest that MoAbfB secretion affects M. oryzae pathogenicity by breaking down the host cell wall, releasing oligosaccharides that may be recognized by the host to trigger innate immune responses.
Despite improvements in instability after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, associated intraarticular injuries remain a major cause of concern and important prognostic factor for long term results as it may lead to osteoarthritis. Delay in ACL reconstruction has been in variably linked to increase in these injuries but there is lack of consensus regarding optimal timing of reconstruction. The goal of this study was to investigate delay in surgery and other factors, associated with intraarticular injuries in ACL deficient knees.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 438 patients (42 females; 396 males) enrolled for this prospective observational study. The average age of patients was 26.43 (range 17–51 years) years with a mean surgical delay of 78.91 (range 1 week - 18 years) weeks after injury. We analyzed the factors of age, sex, surgical delay, instability, and level of activity for possible association with intraarticular injuries.
Medial meniscus injuries had a significant association with surgical delay (P = 0.000) after a delay of 6 months. Lateral meniscus injuries had a significant association with degree of instability (P = 0.001). Medial-sided articular injuries were significantly affected by age (0.005) with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.048 (95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.014–1.082) reflecting 4.8% rise in incidence with each year. Lateral-sided injuries were associated with female sex (P = 0.018) with OR of 2.846 (95% CI of 1.200–6.752). The level of activity failed to reveal any significant associations.
Surgical delay predicts an increase in medial meniscal and lateral articular injuries justifying early rather than delayed reconstruction in ACL deficient knees. Increasing age is positively related to intraarticular injuries while females are more susceptible to lateral articular injuries.
Anterior cruciate ligament; chondral damage; meniscal injuries; anterior cruciate ligament tear; knee; Sports medicine; anterior cruciate ligament; cartilage; knee joint; osteoarthritis
The data presented in this article are associated with the article “Coupling of gel-based 2-DE and 1-DE shotgun proteomics approaches to dig deep into the leaf senescence proteome of Glycine max” (R. Gupta, S.J. Lee, C.W. Min, S.W. Kim, K.-H. Park, D.-W. Bae, et al., 2016) . Leaf senescence is one of the important aspects of the life cycle of a plant that leads to the recycling of nutrients from source to sink cells. To understand the leaf senescence-associated proteins, we used a combination of gel-based 2-DE and 1-DE shotgun proteomic approaches. Here, we display the 2-DE, Mass spectrometry, and Gene ontology data related with the leaf senescence in soybean .
Pain in the immediate post-operative period after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery, apart from an unpleasant experience for the patient, can act as a barrier for static quadriceps contractions and optimum execution of the initial rehabilitation protocol resulting in slow recovery and a later return to full function for a sportsperson. There is no report in the literature comparing pain in the immediate post-operative period after using the two most widely used autografts, bone patellar tendon bone (BPTB) graft and hamstring graft.
The present study compared the visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score in the immediate post-operative period after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with the BPTB and hamstring autografts. Both groups consisted of 50 patients each. The mean age of the BPTB and hamstring cohorts was 26.9 ± 7.3 years (age range 18–59 years) and 26.7 ± 9.0 years (age range 17–52 years), respectively. Unpaired t test was applied to compare pain scores between the BPTB and hamstring cohorts.
In the present study, patients in the BPTB cohort showed higher mean pain scores across all the post-operative time intervals except at 6 h. However, the difference in the mean VAS pain score at post-operative 6, 12,18, 24, 36 and 48 h in the two groups was statistically not significant (p value of 1, 0.665, 0.798, 0.377, 0.651 and 0.215 at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 and 48 h, respectively).
Our study concludes that the arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with BPTB autograft and hamstring autograft is associated with similar pain in the immediate post-operative period. As a result, aggressive physiotherapy regime is not affected by the type of graft being used for ACL reconstruction, as the pain scores in the immediate post-operative period are similar for both techniques.
Clinical Trials Registry-India, CTRI/2016/01/006502
Pain score; Immediate post-operative; BPTB graft; Hamstring graft; ACL surgery
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an immune-mediated liver disease of unknown etiology. Increasing incidence of AIH in Asian patients has been reported. However, the phenotypic difference of Asian patients in Europe and Asia has still not been explored.
To evaluate the clinical presentation, biochemical and immunological profiles, treatment response and survival outcome of type 1 AIH from two tertiary liver transplant centres (United Kingdom and Singapore).
Patients who fulfilled the simplified diagnostic scoring criteria of AIH were included in the study. Patients with overlap syndrome were excluded.
Totals of 40 Asian patients and 159 Caucasian patients from the University Hospital of Birmingham National Health Service Foundation Trust, UK, were compared with 57 Asian patients from Singapore General Hospital, Singapore. Asian patients from Singapore present significantly much later (median 55 vs. 32 years, p < 0.001), had higher MELD (p < 0.001) with lower albumin (p < 0.001) and higher bilirubin (p < 0.001) and lower ASMA positivity (p < 0.001) at diagnosis compared to UK Asian. Jaundice at presentation was much higher in Singapore Asian patients compared to UK Asian (53 vs. 30 %) but cirrhosis at diagnosis was more common in UK patients. Associated autoimmune conditions were less commonly seen in Singapore Asians. Comparing between UK cohorts, Asian patients present at younger age and have higher IgG level compared to Caucasian. Overall, 5-year transplant-free survival in all three cohorts was similar (p = 0.846).
We demonstrate that AIH patients from Singapore present at older age with jaundice and have a low positivity of SMA. Despite these differences, transplant-free survival is similar in the two groups.
Autoimmune hepatitis; Asian; Caucasian; Ethnicity; Clinical features; Immunology; Survival
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a fairly common problem with adverse health consequences. However, any screening questionnaire is not available in Hindi to screen sleep apnea.
Materials and Methods:
Subjects undergoing video-synchronized in laboratory attended polysomnography were requested to participate in this study. They were screened with the help of Hindi version of Berlin questionnaire (BQ). Outcome of the BQ was tested against the gold standard polysomnography. Descriptive statistics, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of Hindi version were calculated.
38 patients with polysomnography diagnosed OSA and 12 controls were included in this study. Average body mass index (BMI) in the OSA group was 33.12 + 6.66 kg/m2 whereas in the control group BMI was 25.01 + 4.20 kg/m2. Average age in the OSA group was 48.9 + 10.2 years whereas the control group was older (56.9 + 12.1 years). Hindi version had sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 58%. PPV of the instrument was 0.87 whereas NPV was 0.63.
Hindi version of BQ is a valid tool for screening the OSA irrespective of the literacy status of the subjects.
Hindi; obstructive-sleep-apnea; screening
We present a technique for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring tendon autograft with preserved tibial insertions. The tendons, harvested with an open-ended tendon stripper while their tibial insertions are preserved, are looped around to prepare a quadrupled graft. The femoral tunnel is drilled independently through a transportal technique, whereas the tibial tunnel is drilled in a standard manner. The length of the quadrupled graft and loop of the RetroButton is adjusted so that it matches the calculated length of both tunnels and the intra-articular part of the proposed ACL graft. After the RetroButton is flipped, the graft is manually tensioned with maximal stretch on the free end, which is then sutured to the other end with preserved insertions. We propose that preserving the insertions is more biological and may provide better proprioception. The technique eliminates the need for a tibial-side fixation device, thus reducing the cost of surgery. Furthermore, tibial-side fixation of the free graft is the weakest link in the overall stiffness of the reconstructed ACL, and this technique circumvents this problem. Postoperative mechanical stability and functional outcome with this technique need to be explored and compared with those of ACL reconstruction using free hamstring autograft.
Potato is one of the most important crops worldwide. Its commercial cultivars are highly susceptible to many fungal and bacterial diseases. Among these, bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum causes significant yield loss. In the present study, integrated proteomics and genomics approaches were used in order to identify bacterial wilt resistant genes from Rs resistance potato cultivar CT-206-10. 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis identified eight differentially abundant proteins including glycine-rich RNA binding protein (GRP), tomato stress induced-1 (TSI-1) protein, pathogenesis-related (STH-2) protein and pentatricopeptide repeat containing (PPR) protein in response to Rs infection. Further, semi-quantitative RT-PCR identified up-regulation in transcript levels of all these genes upon Rs infection. Taken together, our results showed the involvement of the identified proteins in the Rs stress tolerance in potato. In the future, it would be interesting to raise the transgenic plants to further validate their involvement in resistance against Rs in potato.
genomics; MALDI-TOF-MS; potato; proteomics; Ralstonia solanacearum
To identify the causative mutation in two siblings from a consanguineous family in India with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and polydactyly without other findings of Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS). We also performed functional characterization of the mutant protein to explore its role in this limited form of BBS.
The siblings underwent a thorough ophthalmological examination, including retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, and an extensive physical examination with abdominal ultrasonography to characterize the disease phenotype. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) using a panel targeting retinal degeneration genes was performed on genomic DNA samples from the siblings and parents. Upon identification of the causative mutation, functional characterization was accomplished by performing protein–protein interaction studies in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T) and human adult retinal pigmented epithelium (ARPE-19) cells.
The two siblings showed signs of RP and polydactyly. The patients did not have truncal obesity, renal anomalies, hydrometrocolpos, congenital heart disease, or overt cognitive defects. NGS identified a homozygous c.1184A>G mutation in the MKKS/BBS6 gene in both patients resulting in a p.H395R substitution in the MKKS/BBS6 protein. This mutant protein decreased the interaction of MKKS/BBS6 with BBS12 but did so to a different extent in the HEK-293T versus ARPE-19 cells. Nonetheless, the effect of the H395R variant on disrupting interactions with BBS12 was not as profound as other reported MKKS/BBS6 mutations associated with syndromic RP.
We identified a novel H395R substitution in MKKS/BBS6 that results in a unique phenotype of only RP and polydactyly. Our observations reaffirm the notion that mutations in MKKS/BBS6 cause phenotypic heterogeneity and do not always result in classic MKKS or BBS findings.
Dynamic resolution of seed and tuber protein samples is highly limited due to the presence of high-abundance storage proteins (SPs). These proteins inevitably obscure the low-abundance proteins (LAPs) impeding their identification and characterization. To facilitate the detection of LAPs, several methods have been developed during the past decade, enriching the proteome with extreme proteins. Most of these methods, if not all, are based on the specific removal of SPs which ultimately magnify the proteome coverage. In this mini-review, we summarize the available methods that have been developed over the years for the enrichment of LAPs either from seeds or tubers. Incorporation of these methods during the protein extraction step will be helpful in understanding the seed/tuber biology in greater detail.
hidden proteome; low-abundance proteins; high-abundance proteins; storage proteins; proteome coverage; depletion methods; plant
Presleep thoughts may vary between patients of insomnia with or without depression. They are important for cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), but they have never been systemically examined in Indian population.
Materials and Methods:
Patients with insomnia (>1 month) who were willing to undergo CBT-I were included in this study after obtaining informed consent. They were requested to fill a sleep diary and return after 15 days. At the time of intake, diagnosis of depression and anxiety disorders was made according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - IV-Text Revision. They were encouraged to provide information regarding presleep thoughts through open-ended and then, close-ended questions. Dysfunctional attitudes and beliefs about sleep were assessed with Hindi version of “dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes scale-brief version”. Hindi version of “insomnia severity index” was used to assess the severity of insomnia. Subjects were divided into two-groups - insomnia without depression (I) and insomnia with major depressive disorder (I-MDD+).
It was done with the help of SPSS v 21.0. Descriptive statistics was calculated. Proportions between groups were tested with Chi-square analysis and categorical variables were compared using independent sample t-test.
This study included a total of 63 subjects, out of which 60% were women. Mean age of the whole group was 41.7 ± 11.8 years. About 40% of all the subjects were diagnosed as having I-MDD+. Forty-one percent of the subjects had clinically significant anxiety. Both groups - I and I-MDD+ had comparable proportion of female subjects (χ2 = 0.002; P = 0.96) and there was no difference regarding precipitating factors for insomnia (χ2 = 0.97; P = 0.61). They were also comparable with regards to sleep-related measures, themes of presleep thoughts, and dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep and insomnia severity. Major themes of presleep thoughts included family issues and health issues. Only a small proportion had recurrent thoughts related to insomnia and its consequences.
Insomnia is a co-morbid illness with depression and it needs to be separately addressed during therapy. CBT-I should include the element of problem-solving technique, especially when we are dealing with the Indian population.
Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia; depression; insomnia; presleep thoughts
Panax ginseng roots are well known for their medicinal properties and have been used in Korean and Chinese traditional medicines for 1000s of years. However, the medicinal value of P. ginseng fruits remain poorly characterized. In this study, we used an integrated biochemical, proteomics, and metabolomics approach to look into the medicinal properties of ginseng fruits. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] assays showed higher antioxidant activities in ginseng fruits than leaves or roots. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) profiling of ginseng fruit proteins (cv. Cheongsun) showed more than 400 spots wherein a total of 81 protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry using NCBInr, UniRef, and an in-house developed RNAseq (59,251 protein sequences)-based databases. Gene ontology analysis showed that most of the identified proteins were related to the hydrolase (18%), oxidoreductase (16%), and ATP binding (15%) activities. Further, a comparative proteome analysis of four cultivars of ginseng fruits (cvs. Yunpoong, Gumpoong, Chunpoong, and Cheongsun) led to the identification of 22 differentially modulated protein spots. Using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS), 66 metabolites including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and policosanols were identified and quantified. Some of these are well known medicinal compounds and were not previously identified in ginseng. Interestingly, the concentration of almost all metabolites was higher in the Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Parallel comparison of the four cultivars also revealed higher amounts of the medicinal metabolites in Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ginseng fruits are a rich source of medicinal compounds with potential beneficial health effects.
proteome; metabolome; 2D reference map; antioxidants; fruits; ginseng
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) typically presents in the supratentorial white matter, commonly within the centrum semiovale as a ring-enhancing lesion with areas of necrosis. An atypical presentation of this lesion, both anatomically as well as radiographically is significant and must be part of the differential for a neoplasm in this location. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a case of a sixty-two year old female with headaches, increasing somnolence and cognitive decline for several weeks. The MRI showed mild left ventricular dilatation with a well-marginated, homogenous, and non-hemorrhagic lesion located at the ceiling of the third ventricle within the junction of the septum pellucidum (SP) and fornix, without exhibiting the typical radiographic features of hemorrhage or necrosis. Final pathology reports confirmed the diagnosis of GBM. CONCLUSION: This case report describes an unusual location for the most common primary brain neoplasm. Moreover, this case identifies the origin of a GBM related to the paracentral ventricular structures infiltrating the body of the fornix and leaves of the septum pellucidum. To our knowledge this is report is the first reported case of a GBM found in this anatomical location with an entirely atypical radiographic presentation.
Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) typically presents in the supratentorial white matter, commonly within the centrum semiovale as a ring-enhancing lesion with areas of necrosis. An atypical presentation of this lesion, both anatomically as well as radiographically, is significant and must be part of the differential for a neoplasm in this anatomical location.
Case Description We present a case of a 62-year-old woman with headaches, increasing somnolence, and cognitive decline for several weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated mild left ventricular dilatation with a well-marginated, homogeneous, and nonhemorrhagic lesion located at the ceiling of the third ventricle within the junction of the septum pellucidum and fornix, without exhibiting the typical radiographic features of hemorrhage or necrosis. Final pathology reports confirmed the diagnosis of GBM.
Conclusion This case report describes an unusual location for the most common primary brain neoplasm. Moreover, this case identifies the origin of a GBM related to the paracentral ventricular structures infiltrating the body of the fornix and leaves of the septum pellucidum. To our knowledge this report is the first reported case of a GBM found in this anatomical location with an entirely atypical radiographic presentation.
glioblastoma multiforme; third ventricle; foramen of Monroe; gliosarcoma; septum pellucidum; hydrocephalus; fornix
One of the core symptoms of the menopausal transition is sleep disturbance. Peri-menopausal women often complain of difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep with frequent nocturnal and early morning awakenings. Factors that may play a role in this type of insomnia include vasomotor symptoms, changing reproductive hormone levels, circadian rhythm abnormalities, mood disorders, coexistent medical conditions, and lifestyle. Other common sleep problems in this age group, such as obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome, can also worsen the sleep quality. Exogenous melatonin use reportedly induces drowsiness and sleep and may ameliorate sleep disturbances, including the nocturnal awakenings associated with old age and the menopausal transition. Recently, more potent melatonin analogs (selective melatonin-1 (MT1) and melatonin-2 (MT2) receptor agonists) with prolonged effects and slow-release melatonin preparations have been developed. They were found effective in increasing total sleep time and sleep efficiency as well as in reducing sleep latency in insomnia patients. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on the changes in hormonal status to sleep problems among menopausal and postmenopausal women.
Aging; Circadian; Hormone; Melatonin; Menopause; Old; Premenopausal; Perimenopausal; Postmenopausal; Sleep; Women
Restless legs syndrome also known as Willis-Ekbom's Disease (RLS/WED) is a common illness. Cambridge-Hopkins diagnostic questionnaire for RLS (CHRLSq) is a good diagnostic tool and can be used in the epidemiological studies. However, its Hindi version is not available. Thus, this study was conducted to translate and validate it in the Hindi speaking population.
Materials and Methods:
After obtaining the permission from the author of the CHRLSq, it was translated into Hindi language by two independent translators. After a series of forward and back translations, the finalized Hindi version was administered to two groups by one of the authors, who were blinded to the clinical diagnosis. First group consisted of RLS/WED patients, where diagnosis was made upon face to face interview and the other group — the control group included subjects with somatic symptoms disorders or exertional myalgia or chronic insomnia. Each group had 30 subjects. Diagnosis made on CHRLSq was compared with the clinical diagnosis.
Analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) v 21.0. Descriptive statistics was calculated. Proportions were compared using chi-square test; whereas, categorical variables were compared using independent sample t-test. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the translated version of questionnaire were calculated.
Average age was comparable between the cases and control group (RLS/WED = 39.1 ± 10.1 years vs 36.2 ± 11.4 years in controls; P = 0.29). Women outnumbered men in the RLS/WED group (87% in RLS/WED group vs 57% among controls; χ2 = 6.64; P = 0.01). Both the sensitivity and specificity of the translated version was 83.3%. It had the positive predictive value of 86.6%.
Hindi version of CHRLSq has positive predictive value of 87% and it can be used to diagnose RLS in Hindi speaking population.
CHRLSq; restless legs syndrome; translation; validation; Willis-Ekbom's disease
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as the most prevalent form. Despite advances in treatment options including minimally invasive surgery, CT-guided radiation, novel chemotherapeutic regimens, and targeted therapeutics, prognosis remains dismal. Therefore, further molecular analysis of NSCLC is necessary to identify novel molecular targets that impact prognosis and the design of new-targeted therapies. In recent years, tumor “activated/reprogrammed” stromal cells that promote carcinogenesis have emerged as potential therapeutic targets. However, the contribution of stromal cells to NSCLC is poorly understood. Here, we show increased numbers of bone marrow (BM)-derived hematopoietic cells in the tumor parenchyma of NSCLC patients compared with matched adjacent non-neoplastic lung tissue. By sorting specific cellular fractions from lung cancer patients, we compared the transcriptomes of intratumoral myeloid compartments within the tumor bed with their counterparts within adjacent non-neoplastic tissue from NSCLC patients. The RNA sequencing of specific myeloid compartments (immature monocytic myeloid cells and polymorphonuclear neutrophils) identified differentially regulated genes and mRNA isoforms, which were inconspicuous in whole tumor analysis. Genes encoding secreted factors, including osteopontin (OPN), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7) and thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) were identified, which enhanced tumorigenic properties of lung cancer cells indicative of their potential as targets for therapy. This study demonstrates that analysis of homogeneous stromal populations isolated directly from fresh clinical specimens can detect important stromal genes of therapeutic value.
A case of 22 year old male gymnast, who suffered from suprascapular neuropathy due to compression of suprascapular nerve by paralabral cysts around suprascapular notch, leading to marked atrophy of supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. After arthroscopic decompression of paralabral cysts, weakness and atrophy of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles improved.
Suprascapular neuropathy; Paralabral cyst; Arthroscopic decompression
Sleep-related bruxism may present with headache. However, in clinical practice it may be difficult to differentiate from other causes of headache, especially in subjects with substance abuse. We are presenting a case of sleep-related bruxism that presented with headache and sleep-related symptoms in the presence of substance abuse. Polysomnography was used to ascertain cause of headache. How the other possible causes of headache ruled out is also discussed in report. In short, Sleep-related bruxism can cause headache that is worse in the morning. It is associated with poor quality sleep.
Headache; I sleep initiation and maintenance disorders; sleep bruxism
The study was conducted to find out the association of various naso-oro-pharyngeal structures with sleep macro-architecture in suspected obstructive sleep apnea subjects. Study included 51 subjects with suspected obstructive sleep apnea. Subjects with possible central apnea and those consuming any substance that can affect sleep architecture were excluded. Level I polysomnography was performed after thorough physical examination. Overnight study was scored in 30 s epochs to find out the polysomnographic variables. Surgical treatment was offered wherever indicated. Subjects with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea were manually titrated on CPAP with the polysomnogram. SPSS v 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. We did not find any difference in the sleep architecture between genders. Sleep Efficiency was better in subjects with dental overjet, dental attrition, high tongue base, macroglossia, lesser oral cavity volume, edematous uvula, increased submental fat, hypertrophied facial muscles and Mallampatti grade III–IV. Shorter Sleep Latency was seen in subjects with tender TMJ and Mallampatti Gr III–IV. REM latency was shorter in subjects with high tongue base, macroglossia and hypertrophied muscles of mastication. Increased REM was observed in subjects with high tongue base, edematous uvula and tender TMJ. Enlarged tonsils had reversed effect with poor sleep efficiency, increased REM latency and decreased REM. CPAP therapy (N = 20) lessened awake time, decreased N2 and increased REM. Oro-pharyngeal structures affect the sleep architecture in suspected OSA subjects. Nasal structures do not affect the sleep architecture in these subjects and enlarged tonsils have opposite effect. Sleep architecture changes on the titration night with CPAP.
Sleep-architecture; Sleep-apnea; Oro-naso-pharyngeal anatomy
low-abundance proteins; high-abundance proteins; two-dimensional gel electrophoresis; RuBisCO; post-translational modifications