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1.  Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor in an adult: a case report and review of the literature 
Introduction
Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors predominantly occur in children, and are rare in the adult population. Less than 100 cases of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor have been reported in adults internationally. Our case study reports this rare incident.
Case presentation
A 22-year-old Hispanic man presented with headaches, blurry vision, diplopia, intermittent vomiting, and grossly decreased vision. A magnetic resonance image showed a left posterior parietal heterogeneously enhancing mass measuring 4.2cm × 7.2cm × 7.0cm. After craniotomy for resection and decompression, the mass was histologically revealed to be a supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Standardized immunohistochemical studies for this mass were carried out.
Conclusion
We have concluded that immunohistochemical and genetic workup should be included in the standardized pathological workup for primitive neuroectodermal tumors in order to provide more prognostic information. Based on our current literature review, we propose an immunohistochemical panel.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-361
PMCID: PMC3492070  PMID: 23095172
2.  Repair of the torn distal biceps tendon by endobutton fixation 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2012;46(1):71-76.
Background:
A number of techniques have been described to reattach the torn distal biceps tendon to the bicipital tuberosity. We report a retrospective analysis of single incision technique using an endobutton fixation in sports persons.
Materials and Methods:
The present series include nine torn distal biceps tendons in eight patients, fixed anatomically to the radial tuberosity with an endobutton by using a single incision surgical technique; seven patients had suffered the injuries during contact sports. The passage of the endobutton was facilitated by using a blunt tipped pin in order to avoid injury to the posterior interosseous nerve. The patients were evaluated by Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and Mayo elbow score.
Results:
The average age of the patients was 27.35 years (range 21–42 years). Average follow-up was 41.5 months (range 24–102 months). The final average flexion extension arc was 0°–143°, while the average pronation and supination angles were 77° (range 70°–82°) and 81° (range 78°–85°), respectively at the last followup. All the patients had a Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score of 0 and a Mayo elbow score of 100 each. All the seven active sports persons were able to get back to their respective game. There was no nerve injury or any other complication.
Conclusions:
The surgical procedure used by us is a simple, safe and reproducible technique giving minimal morbidity and better cosmetic results.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.91638
PMCID: PMC3270609  PMID: 22345810
Autograft; biceps tendon; elbow; tendon repair; tendon rupture
3.  The evolution of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in route to acquisition of Q151M multi-drug resistance is complex and involves mutations in multiple domains 
Retrovirology  2011;8:31.
Background
The Q151M multi-drug resistance (MDR) pathway in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) confers reduced susceptibility to all nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) excluding tenofovir (TDF). This pathway emerges after long term failure of therapy, and is increasingly observed in the resource poor world, where antiretroviral therapy is rarely accompanied by intensive virological monitoring. In this study we examined the genotypic, phenotypic and fitness correlates associated with the development of Q151M MDR in the absence of viral load monitoring.
Results
Single-genome sequencing (SGS) of full-length RT was carried out on sequential samples from an HIV-infected individual enrolled in ART rollout. The emergence of Q151M MDR occurred in the order A62V, V75I, and finally Q151M on the same genome at 4, 17 and 37 months after initiation of therapy, respectively. This was accompanied by a parallel cumulative acquisition of mutations at 20 other codon positions; seven of which were located in the connection subdomain. We established that fourteen of these mutations are also observed in Q151M-containing sequences submitted to the Stanford University HIV database. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing demonstrated that the Q151M-containing RT had reduced susceptibility to all NRTIs except for TDF. RT domain-swapping of patient and wild-type RTs showed that patient-derived connection subdomains were not associated with reduced NRTI susceptibility. However, the virus expressing patient-derived Q151M RT at 37 months demonstrated ~44% replicative capacity of that at 4 months. This was further reduced to ~22% when the Q151M-containing DNA pol domain was expressed with wild-type C-terminal domain, but was then fully compensated by coexpression of the coevolved connection subdomain.
Conclusions
We demonstrate a complex interplay between drug susceptibility and replicative fitness in the acquisition Q151M MDR with serious implications for second-line regimen options. The acquisition of the Q151M pathway occurred sequentially over a long period of failing NRTI therapy, and was associated with mutations in multiple RT domains.
doi:10.1186/1742-4690-8-31
PMCID: PMC3113953  PMID: 21569325
4.  Non-union scaphoid: Four-corner fusion of the wrist 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2010;44(2):208-211.
Background:
Four-corner fusion of the wrist is an option for management of non-union scaphoid with painful arthritis of the wrist. Various surgical techniques have been devised for four-corner fusion, with inconsistent results. We present our experience of four-corner fusion achieved using a standard H-plate, designed originally for anterior cervical plating.
Materials and Methods:
The study is a retrospective analysis of six cases of painful wrist arthritis resulting from nonunion of scaphoid treated by four-corner fusion, between 1996 and 2004. The average duration of follow-up was 5.8 years. Each patient was evaluated clinically according to the rating scales described by Bach.
Results:
The mean grip-strength calculated as a percentage of the uninvolved side was 47% pre-operatively, and 74% post- operatively at the final follow-up. The difference between the preoperative and postoperative ‘pain ratings’ and ‘activity ratings’ was found to be statistically significant (P<0.001). Mean time to fusion was 16.1 weeks. Dorsal impingement was the most common associated problem.
Conclusions:
H-plate, used for four-corner fusion, provides rigid fixation, ensures fusion, and is a good alternative to the available options.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.61908
PMCID: PMC2856398  PMID: 20419010
Four corner fusion; Cervical H-plate; nonunion scaphoid
5.  Late arthroscopic retrieval of a bullet from hip joint 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2009;43(4):416-419.
We describe a case of arthroscopic retrieval of a bullet from the hip joint of an 18-year-old boy, who sustained the injury four months back, accidentally, while bird hunting with a country made shotgun. The surgery was performed with the standard ordinary instrumentation of knee arthroscopy. The patient became pain-free the same evening and started partial weight bearing on the next day of surgery. At 13 months follow-up, the patient had returned to normal activity without any functional limitations.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.54764
PMCID: PMC2762570  PMID: 19838396
Arthroscopy; bullet injury; hip

Results 1-5 (5)