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1.  Combinatorial Phenotypic Signatures Distinguish Persistent from Resolving Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Isolates ▿  
Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia (PB) (positive blood cultures after ≥7 days of therapy) represents a clinically challenging subset of invasive MRSA infections. In this investigation, we examined the potential correlation of specific virulence signatures with PB versus resolving MRSA bacteremia (RB) (negative blood cultures within 2 to 4 days of therapy) strains. Thirty-six MRSA isolates from patients enrolled in a recent multinational clinical trial were studied for (i) susceptibility to host defense cationic peptides (HDPs) (i.e., thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal proteins [tPMPs] and human neutrophil peptide 1 [hNP-1]); (ii) adherence to host endovascular ligands (fibronectin) and cells (endothelial cells); and (iii) biofilm formation. We found that PB isolates exhibited significantly reduced susceptibilities to tPMPs and hNP-1 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.023, respectively). There was no significant association between the PB outcome and fibronectin binding, endothelial cell binding, or biofilm formation (P = 0.25, 0.97, and 0.064 versus RB strains, respectively). However, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the PB outcome was significantly associated with the combination of reduced susceptibilities to HDPs and extent of biofilm formation (P < 0.0001). Similar results were obtained in a second analysis using days of bacteremia as a continuous outcome, showing that reduced HDP susceptibilities and increased biofilm formation cocontributed to predict the duration of bacteremia. Our data indicate that PB isolates have specific pathogenic signatures independent of conventional antimicrobial susceptibility. These combinatorial mosaics can be defined and used to prospectively distinguish PB from RB strains in advance and potentially to predict ultimate clinical outcomes.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01028-10
PMCID: PMC3028773  PMID: 21098242
2.  Determination of an Inoculum Effect with Various Cephalosporins among Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus▿  
Using 98 clinical methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates of known β-lactamase (Bla) type, we found a pronounced inoculum effect for cephalexin (mostly Bla type A and C strains), a mild inoculum effect for cephalothin (especially types B and C), and no inoculum effects for ceftriaxone and cefuroxime. Ceftobiprole showed the lowest MICs at a high inoculum but with a slight increase for Bla-positive versus Bla-negative strains. Since a potential therapeutic effect associated with a cephalosporin inoculum effect has been described, further studies are warranted.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01325-09
PMCID: PMC2863656  PMID: 20211890
3.  Inoculum Effect with Cefazolin among Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: Frequency and Possible Cause of Cefazolin Treatment Failure▿  
Methicillin (meticillin)-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains producing large amounts of type A β-lactamase (Bla) have been associated with cefazolin failures, but the frequency and impact of these strains have not been well studied. Here we examined 98 MSSA clinical isolates and found that 26% produced type A Bla, 15% type B, 46% type C, and none type D and that 13% lacked blaZ. The cefazolin MIC90 was 2 μg/ml for a standard inoculum and 32 μg/ml for a high inoculum, with 19% of isolates displaying a pronounced inoculum effect (MICs of ≥16 μg/ml with 107 CFU/ml) (9 type A and 10 type C Bla producers). At the high inoculum, type A producers displayed higher cefazolin MICs than type B or C producers, while type B and C producers displayed higher cefamandole MICs. Among isolates from hemodialysis patients with MSSA bacteremia, three from the six patients who experienced cefazolin failure showed a cefazolin inoculum effect, while none from the six patients successfully treated with cefazolin showed an inoculum effect, suggesting an association between these strains and cefazolin failure (P = 0.09 by Fisher's exact test). In summary, 19% of MSSA clinical isolates showed a pronounced inoculum effect with cefazolin, a phenomenon that could explain the cases of cefazolin failure previously reported for hemodialysis patients with MSSA bacteremia. These results suggest that for serious MSSA infections, the presence of a significant inoculum effect with cefazolin could be associated with clinical failure in patients treated with this cephalosporin, particularly when it is used at low doses.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00317-09
PMCID: PMC2715590  PMID: 19487449
4.  Microbiological and Genotypic Analysis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia▿  
In a recent landmark trial of bacteremia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, vancomycin MICs were ≥1 μg/ml for only 16% of the isolates, and accessory gene regulator (agr) function as measured by delta-hemolysin activity was absent or reduced in only 28.1% of the isolates. This clinical study did not capture a population of MRSA isolates predictive of vancomycin treatment failure.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00357-08
PMCID: PMC2533503  PMID: 18606839
5.  Phase II, Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of a Polyclonal Anti-Staphylococcus aureus Capsular Polysaccharide Immune Globulin in Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2007;51(12):4249-4254.
New treatment modalities are needed for the treatment of infections due to multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus capsular polysaccharide immune globulin (Altastaph) is a polyclonal immune globulin preparation that is being developed as adjunctive therapy for persons with S. aureus infections complicated by bacteremia. In a phase II, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 40 subjects with documented S. aureus bacteremia received standard therapy plus either Altastaph at 200 mg/kg of body weight in each of two infusions 24 h apart or placebo. During the 42-day observation period, antibody pharmacokinetics and safety were the primary characteristics studied. Information regarding the resolution of bacteremia and fever was also analyzed. Anti-type-5 and anti-type-8 capsular antibody levels peaked after the second infusion at 550 μg/ml and 419 μg/ml, respectively, and remained above 100 μg/ml at day 28. A total of 316 adverse events were noted in 39 of 40 subjects. Infusion-related adverse events in Altastaph recipients were infrequent and similar to those among recipients of commercial intravenously administered immunoglobulin G products. Five of 21 (23%) subjects in the Altastaph group died, whereas 2 of 18 (11%) subjects in the placebo group died (P = 0.42). Compared to the control patients, the Altastaph recipients had a shorter median time to the resolution of fever (2 days and 7 days, respectively; P = 0.09) and a shorter length of hospital stay (9 days and 14 days, respectively; P = 0.03). However, these findings are exploratory, and there were few differences in the other variables measured. High levels of opsonizing antibodies were maintained for the initial 4 weeks. Although the study was not powered to show efficacy, these preliminary findings and safety profile suggest that Altastaph may be an effective adjunct to antibiotics and warrants further investigation (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00063089).
doi:10.1128/AAC.00570-07
PMCID: PMC2168017  PMID: 17893153
6.  Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Study Comparing the Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Tefibazumab to Placebo for Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia 
Tefibazumab (Aurexis), a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the surface-expressed adhesion protein clumping factor A, is under development as adjunctive therapy for serious Staphylococcus aureus infections. Sixty patients with documented S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) were randomized and received either tefibazumab at 20 mg/kg of body weight as a single infusion or a placebo in addition to an antibiotic(s). The primary objective of the study was determining safety and pharmacokinetics. An additional objective was to assess activity by a composite clinical end point (CCE). Baseline characteristics were evenly matched between groups. Seventy percent of infections were healthcare associated, and 57% had an SAB-related complication at baseline. There were no differences between the treatment groups in overall adverse clinical events or alterations in laboratory values. Two patients developed serious adverse events that were at least possibly related to tefibazumab; one hypersensitivity reaction was considered definitely related. The tefibazumab plasma half-life was 18 days. Mean plasma levels were <100 μg/ml by day 14. A CCE occurred in six patients (four placebo and two tefibazumab patients) and included five deaths (four placebo and one tefibazumab patient). Progression in the severity of sepsis occurred in four placebo and no tefibazumab patients. Tefibazumab was well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to those of other monoclonal antibodies. Additional trials are warranted to address the dosing range and efficacy of tefibazumab.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00096-06
PMCID: PMC1538656  PMID: 16870768
7.  Telavancin versus Standard Therapy for Treatment of Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections Caused by Gram-Positive Bacteria: FAST 2 Study 
Telavancin is a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide with a multifunctional mechanism of action. We conducted a randomized, double blind, active-control phase II trial. Patients ≥18 years of age with complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by suspected or confirmed gram-positive organisms were randomized to receive either telavancin at 10 mg/kg intravenously every 24 h (q24h) or standard therapy (antistaphylococcal penicillin at 2 g q6h or vancomycin at 1 g q12h). A total of 195 patients were randomized and received at least one dose of study medication. Clinical success rates were similar in all analysis populations at test of cure. In microbiologically evaluable patients with Staphylococcus aureus at baseline (n = 91), 96% of the telavancin group and 90% of the standard-therapy group were cured. Among patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at baseline (n = 45), clinical cure rates were also 96% for telavancin and 90% for standard therapy. Microbiologic eradication in patients with S. aureus infection was better with telavancin compared to standard therapy (92% versus 78%, P = 0.07) and significantly better in patients with MRSA (92% versus 68%; P = 0.04). Therapy was discontinued for an adverse event (AE) in 6% and 3% of the patients receiving telavancin and standard therapy, respectively. Except for two cases of rash in the telavancin group, these AEs were similar in type and severity in the two groups. The overall incidences and severities of AEs and laboratory abnormalities were similar between the two groups. These data support the ongoing studies assessing the efficacy and safety of telavancin in the treatment of serious gram-positive infections, particularly involving MRSA.
doi:10.1128/AAC.50.3.862-867.2006
PMCID: PMC1426424  PMID: 16495243
8.  Reduced Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to Vancomycin and Platelet Microbicidal Protein Correlates with Defective Autolysis and Loss of Accessory Gene Regulator (agr) Function 
Loss of agr function, vancomycin exposure, and abnormal autolysis have been linked with both development of the GISA phenotype and low-level resistance in vitro to thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal proteins (tPMPs). We examined the potential in vitro interrelationships among these parameters in well-characterized, isogenic laboratory-derived and clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The laboratory-derived S. aureus strains included RN6607 (agrII-positive parent) and RN6607V (vancomycin-passaged variant; hetero-GISA), RN9120 (RN6607 agr::tetM; agr II knockout parent), RN9120V (vancomycin-passaged variant), and RN9120-GISA (vancomycin passaged, GISA). Two serial isolates from a vancomycin-treated patient with recalcitrant, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) endocarditis were also studied: A5937 (agrII-positive initial isolate) and A5940 (agrII-defective/hetero-GISA isolate obtained after prolonged vancomycin administration). In vitro tPMP susceptibility phenotypes were assessed after exposure of strains to either 1 or 2 μg/ml. Triton X-100- and vancomycin-induced lysis profiles were determined spectrophotometrically. For agrII-intact strain RN6607, vancomycin exposure in vitro was associated with modest increases in vancomycin MICs and reduced killing by tPMP, but no change in lysis profiles. In contrast, vancomycin exposure of agrII-negative RN9120 yielded a hetero-GISA phenotype and was associated with defects in lysis and reduced in vitro killing by tPMP. In the clinical isolates, loss of agrII function during prolonged vancomycin therapy was accompanied by emergence of the hetero-GISA phenotype and reduced tPMP killing, with no significant change in lysis profiles. An association was identified between loss of agrII function and the emergence of hetero-GISA phenotype during either in vitro or in vivo vancomycin exposure. In vitro, these events were associated with defective lysis and reduced susceptibility to tPMP. The precise mechanism(s) underlying these findings is the subject of current investigations.
doi:10.1128/AAC.49.7.2687-2692.2005
PMCID: PMC1168700  PMID: 15980337
9.  Antimicrobial Activity of Prosthetic Heart Valve Sewing Cuffs Coated With Minocycline and Rifampin 
Prosthetic heart valve sewing cuffs coated with minocycline and rifampin exhibited in vitro zones of inhibition against all 52 tested clinical isolates responsible for prosthetic valve endocarditis. An in vitro elution study of these coated sewing cuffs demonstrated residual zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus epidermidis for at least 4 weeks.
doi:10.1128/AAC.46.2.543-545.2002
PMCID: PMC127022  PMID: 11796374
10.  In Vitro Resistance to Thrombin-Induced Platelet Microbicidal Protein among Clinical Bacteremic Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus Correlates with an Endovascular Infectious Source 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1998;42(12):3169-3172.
Platelet microbicidal proteins (PMPs), small cationic peptides released at sites of endovascular damage, kill common bloodstream pathogens in vitro. Our group previously showed that in vitro resistance of clinical staphylococcal and viridans group streptococcal bacteremic strains to PMPs correlated with the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) (Wu et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:729–732, 1994). However, that study was limited by (i) the small number of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from IE patients, (ii) the retrospective nature of the case definitions, and (iii) the diverse geographic sources of strains. The present study evaluated the in vitro PMP susceptibility phenotype of a large number of staphylococcemic isolates (n = 60), collected at a single medical center and categorized by defined and validated clinical criteria. A significantly higher proportion of staphylococcemic strains from patients with IE was PMP resistant in vitro than the proportion of strains from patients with soft tissue sepsis (83% and 33%, respectively; P < 0.01). Moreover, the levels of PMP resistance (mean percent survival of strains after 2-h exposure to PMP in vitro) were significantly higher for isolates from patients with IE and with vascular catheter sepsis than for strains from patients with abscess sepsis (P < 0.005 and P < 0.01, respectively). These data further support the concept that bloodstream pathogens that exhibit innate or acquired PMP resistance have a survival advantage with respect to either the induction or progression of endovascular infections.
PMCID: PMC106018  PMID: 9835510

Results 1-10 (10)