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1.  Effects of Cryptococcus neoformans-specific suppressor T cells on the amplified anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity response. 
Infection and Immunity  1991;59(1):29-35.
Cell-mediated immunity is an important host resistance mechanism against Cryptococcus neoformans, the etiological agent of cryptococcosis. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that the anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response as measured by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) is down-regulated by a cascade of antigen-specific T suppressor (Ts) cells. Recently, we have identified a population of CD4 T cells that up-regulate the anticryptococcal DTH response (Tamp cells). The Tamp cells are found in the spleens of donor mice at 6 days after immunization with cryptococcal antigen, and they amplify the anticryptococcal DTH response when transferred to syngeneic recipients at the time of immunization of the recipients. In this study, we determined the effects of C. neoformans-specific Ts cells on the induction of the Tamp cells in the Tamp cell-donor mice and on the induction and expression of the amplified anticryptococcal DTH response in the Tamp cell-recipient mice. When cryptococcal-specific Ts1 cells were given at the time of immunization of the Tamp cell-donor mice, induction of Tamp cells was inhibited. In contrast, when Ts1 cells were given at the time of adoptive transfer of Tamp cells, the recipients displayed amplified DTH responses, indicating that Ts1 cells do not affect the Tamp cells' function once the Tamp cells have been produced. C. neoformans-specific Ts2 cells given at the time of either immunization or footpad challenge of the Tamp cell-recipient mice did not alter, to any measurable extent, the amplified DTH response. These results indicate that in addition to amplifying the anticryptococcal DTH response, Tamp cells may protect the anticryptococcal TDH cells from suppression by C. neoformans-specific Ts cells, much like contrasuppressor cells do in other systems. However, further characterization of the Tamp cells revealed that they are not adherent to Viscia villosa lectin, indicating that the anticryptococcal Tamp cells do not have this characteristic in common with contrasuppressor cells of other antigen systems.
PMCID: PMC257701  PMID: 1824761
2.  Characterization of a cell population which amplifies the anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity response. 
Infection and Immunity  1990;58(2):393-398.
Cell-mediated immunity to Cryptococcus neoformans can be detected by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to a culture filtrate antigen of C. neoformans. Recently, we have identified a population of cells in spleens of mice immunized with cryptococcal antigen that, when transferred to recipient mice at the time of immunization, amplifies the anticryptococcal DTH response. If the cell donor mice are treated with cyclosporin A during induction of the anticryptococcal DTH response, the amplifier cells are not induced, whereas the cells which transfer DTH (TDH cells) are induced. The purpose of this study was to characterize the amplifier cells with respect to their surface and functional properties and, in so doing, determine whether or not the amplifier cells are analogous to long-lived memory cells. We demonstrated that the amplifier cells were nylon-wool-nonadherent, antigen-specific, CD4 (L3T4+ Lyt-2-) T lymphocytes which appear in the spleens of mice 5 days postimmunization with cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen in complete Freund adjuvant. The amplifier T (Tamp) cells are not considered to be memory cells because they are relatively short-lived, being present 14 but not 18 days after the stimulating immunization. Moreover, the amplified anticryptococcal DTH response does not fulfill the criteria of the typical secondary immune (anamnestic) response in that the amplified response does not appear early relative to the appearance of the primary anticryptococcal DTH response, and it does not persist longer than the primary DTH response. We speculate that Tamp cells are not long-lived memory cells but rather act in a T-helper cell capacity to amplify the anticryptococcal DTH response.
PMCID: PMC258468  PMID: 2105273
3.  Effects of cyclosporin A on the cells responsible for the anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response and its regulation. 
Infection and Immunity  1989;57(4):1158-1164.
Cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent immunosuppressive drug, was used to explore further the induction, expression, and regulation of lymphoid cells involved in the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to cryptococcal antigen(s). We found that the induction of the cells responsible for DTH (TDH cells) was not affected by CsA, but their expression was inhibited in CsA-treated mice. The inhibition of expression of the TDH cells could not be attributed to the Cryptococcus neoformans-specific suppressor T (Ts) cells, even though the Ts cells were induced in CsA-treated mice. Instead, the suppressed expression of the TDH cells in CsA-treated mice was a direct effect of CsA or its products. Our studies with CsA also resulted in the first identification of a population of cells that significantly amplify the anticryptococcal DTH response. The amplifier cells were induced in mice that were given a primary immunizing dose of cryptococcal antigen in complete Freund adjuvant, and they amplified the anticryptococcal DTH response in recipient mice when they were transferred at the time of immunization of the recipient. The amplifier cell population was distinct from the TDH cells in that CsA inhibited the production of the amplifying cells but did not affect the induction of TDH cells. Amplification of the DTH response was a cell-mediated event, since cells but not serum from immunized mice mediated the amplified response in recipient mice. Thus, CsA enabled us to characterize anticryptococcal TDH and Ts cells further and to add to the immune cell circuit of the cryptococcal system a distinct population of cells that amplifies the anticryptococcal DTH response.
PMCID: PMC313245  PMID: 2522419
4.  Characterization of an in vitro-stimulated, Cryptococcus neoformans-specific second-order suppressor T cell and its precursor. 
Infection and Immunity  1988;56(5):1267-1272.
Using a cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen (CneF) in a murine model, we have demonstrated previously that a cascade of Cryptococcus neoformans-specific suppressor T cells and soluble factors function in suppressing the cryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. In addition, we have successfully hybridized the C. neoformans-specific, first-order T-suppressor (Ts1) cell and have established that the culture supernatant (hTsF1) from this hybridoma induces second-order T-suppressor (Ts2) cells in vivo. Here we report the in vitro induction of expression-phase suppressor cells. The suppressor cells were induced by culturing nylon wool-nonadherent splenic cells from naive mice with hTsF1 in the absence of CneF. Nylon wool-nonadherent splenic cells similarly cultured with supernatants from the BW5147 thymoma cells, the fusion partners of the hybridoma, did not significantly suppress the cryptococcal DTH response. The suppressor cells were designated Ts2 cells based on their similarities in function, specificity, and phenotype, i.e. L3T4-, Lyt-2+, and I-J+, to the in vivo-induced Ts2 cells. By employing the in vitro culture technique, we demonstrated that the precursors of the functional Ts2 cells were L3T4- Lyt-1-2+ I-J- cells. The induction of Ts2 cells was not associated with [3H]thymidine incorporation; therefore, we concluded that hTsF1 induces the Lyt-2+ I-J- cells to differentiate into Lyt-2+ I-J+ functional Ts2 cells without a significant amount of proliferation. From the results of this study, a better understanding of the processes involved in the regulation of the DTH response to CneF was achieved. The in vitro culture technique will allow for further detailed studies of the interactions between the various cell populations and the Ts1 cell-derived soluble factor during the induction of Ts2 cells.
PMCID: PMC259805  PMID: 2965681

Results 1-4 (4)