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2.  The potential role of the antioxidant and detoxification properties of glutathione in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis 
Background
Glutathione has a wide range of functions; it is an endogenous anti-oxidant and plays a key role in the maintenance of intracellular redox balance and detoxification of xenobiotics. Several studies have indicated that children with autism spectrum disorders may have altered glutathione metabolism which could play a key role in the condition.
Methods
A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted of studies examining metabolites, interventions and/or genes of the glutathione metabolism pathways i.e. the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autism spectrum disorders.
Results
Thirty nine studies were included in the review comprising an in vitro study, thirty two metabolite and/or co-factor studies, six intervention studies and six studies with genetic data as well as eight studies examining enzyme activity.
Conclusions
The review found evidence for the involvement of the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autistic disorder is sufficiently consistent, particularly with respect to the glutathione redox ratio, to warrant further investigation to determine the significance in relation to clinical outcomes. Large, well designed intervention studies that link metabolites, cofactors and genes of the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway with objective behavioural outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders are required. Future risk factor analysis should include consideration of multiple nutritional status and metabolite biomarkers of pathways linked with the γ-glutamyl cycle and the interaction of genotype in relation to these factors.
doi:10.1186/1743-7075-9-35
PMCID: PMC3373368  PMID: 22524510
γ-glutamyl cycle; Trans-sulphuration pathway; Metabolites; Genes; Supplementation; Autism spectrum disorders
3.  A method for non-invasive genotyping of APCmin/+ mice using fecal samples 
The APCmin/+ mouse is commonly used in cancer research and is just one of many genetically altered models that is currently being developed. With high numbers of breeding programs, it is important to have a simple method that can be used to genotype the mice non-invasively. Here we report a reproducible method for genotyping mice with DNA extracted from fecal samples. Comparison of fecal results with those obtained from intestinal tissue DNA and clinical outcome (presence/absence of tumors) showed this technique to have 100% accuracy. This non-invasive method of genotyping may be applied to other transgenic mouse models.
doi:10.1186/1480-9222-14-1
PMCID: PMC3293049  PMID: 22284906
APCmin/+; feces; genotyping; cancer; non-invasive

Results 1-3 (3)